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Lecture# Momentum Equation

Description

This lecture covers the application of the momentum equation in fluid flow analysis, focusing on continuity, linear momentum in x, y & z directions, and force calculations on various structures. Topics include steady flow conditions, control volume analysis, and the impact of flow direction changes on momentum. The instructor demonstrates the calculation of forces on sluice gates, moving vanes, and suspended cones in free water jets, emphasizing the importance of Bernoulli's equation and mass flux. Practical examples involving nozzle flow, hydraulic jumps, and force exertion by water jets provide a comprehensive understanding of momentum principles.

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In Newtonian mechanics, momentum (: momenta or momentums; more specifically linear momentum or translational momentum) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object. It is a vector quantity, possessing a magnitude and a direction. If m is an object's mass and v is its velocity (also a vector quantity), then the object's momentum p (from Latin pellere "push, drive") is: In the International System of Units (SI), the unit of measurement of momentum is the kilogram metre per second (kg⋅m/s), which is equivalent to the newton-second.

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In physics, angular momentum (sometimes called moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational analog of linear momentum. It is an important physical quantity because it is a conserved quantity – the total angular momentum of a closed system remains constant. Angular momentum has both a direction and a magnitude, and both are conserved. Bicycles and motorcycles, flying discs, rifled bullets, and gyroscopes owe their useful properties to conservation of angular momentum.

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In quantum mechanics, the momentum operator is the operator associated with the linear momentum. The momentum operator is, in the position representation, an example of a differential operator. For the case of one particle in one spatial dimension, the definition is: where ħ is Planck's reduced constant, i the imaginary unit, x is the spatial coordinate, and a partial derivative (denoted by ) is used instead of a total derivative (d/dx) since the wave function is also a function of time. The "hat" indicates an operator.

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In continuum mechanics the flow velocity in fluid dynamics, also macroscopic velocity in statistical mechanics, or drift velocity in electromagnetism, is a vector field used to mathematically describe the motion of a continuum. The length of the flow velocity vector is the flow speed and is a scalar. It is also called velocity field; when evaluated along a line, it is called a velocity profile (as in, e.g., law of the wall).

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