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Lecture# Polynomial Methods: GCD Calculation Summary

Description

This lecture covers the calculation of the greatest common divisor (GCD) using polynomial methods, focusing on the Euclidean algorithm. Topics include initialization of a and b, Bezout's identity, common divisors, and the application of the algorithm to find the GCD. The instructor demonstrates the process step by step, emphasizing the importance of polynomial division and the Bezout identity in determining the GCD.

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Polynomial

In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of indeterminates (also called variables) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and positive-integer powers of variables. An example of a polynomial of a single indeterminate x is x2 − 4x + 7. An example with three indeterminates is x3 + 2xyz2 − yz + 1. Polynomials appear in many areas of mathematics and science.

Polynomial long division

In algebra, polynomial long division is an algorithm for dividing a polynomial by another polynomial of the same or lower degree, a generalized version of the familiar arithmetic technique called long division. It can be done easily by hand, because it separates an otherwise complex division problem into smaller ones. Sometimes using a shorthand version called synthetic division is faster, with less writing and fewer calculations. Another abbreviated method is polynomial short division (Blomqvist's method).

Polynomial ring

In mathematics, especially in the field of algebra, a polynomial ring or polynomial algebra is a ring (which is also a commutative algebra) formed from the set of polynomials in one or more indeterminates (traditionally also called variables) with coefficients in another ring, often a field. Often, the term "polynomial ring" refers implicitly to the special case of a polynomial ring in one indeterminate over a field. The importance of such polynomial rings relies on the high number of properties that they have in common with the ring of the integers.

Extended Euclidean algorithm

In arithmetic and computer programming, the extended Euclidean algorithm is an extension to the Euclidean algorithm, and computes, in addition to the greatest common divisor (gcd) of integers a and b, also the coefficients of Bézout's identity, which are integers x and y such that This is a certifying algorithm, because the gcd is the only number that can simultaneously satisfy this equation and divide the inputs. It allows one to compute also, with almost no extra cost, the quotients of a and b by their greatest common divisor.

Bézout domain

In mathematics, a Bézout domain is a form of a Prüfer domain. It is an integral domain in which the sum of two principal ideals is again a principal ideal. This means that for every pair of elements a Bézout identity holds, and that every finitely generated ideal is principal. Any principal ideal domain (PID) is a Bézout domain, but a Bézout domain need not be a Noetherian ring, so it could have non-finitely generated ideals (which obviously excludes being a PID); if so, it is not a unique factorization domain (UFD), but still is a GCD domain.

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