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Lecture# Nyquist Sampling Theorem

Description

This lecture covers the Nyquist sampling theorem, explaining the concept of band-limited signals, sampling rate, and signal reconstruction. Emphasis is placed on understanding the relationship between signal bandwidth and sampling frequency.

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Related concepts (77)

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Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem

The Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem is an essential principle for digital signal processing linking the frequency range of a signal and the sample rate required to avoid a type of distortion called aliasing. The theorem states that the sample rate must be at least twice the bandwidth of the signal to avoid aliasing distortion. In practice, it is used to select band-limiting filters to keep aliasing distortion below an acceptable amount when an analog signal is sampled or when sample rates are changed within a digital signal processing function.

Sampling (signal processing)

In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal. A common example is the conversion of a sound wave to a sequence of "samples". A sample is a value of the signal at a point in time and/or space; this definition differs from the term's usage in statistics, which refers to a set of such values. A sampler is a subsystem or operation that extracts samples from a continuous signal. A theoretical ideal sampler produces samples equivalent to the instantaneous value of the continuous signal at the desired points.

Dimension

In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it. Thus, a line has a dimension of one (1D) because only one coordinate is needed to specify a point on it - for example, the point at 5 on a number line. A surface, such as the boundary of a cylinder or sphere, has a dimension of two (2D) because two coordinates are needed to specify a point on it - for example, both a latitude and longitude are required to locate a point on the surface of a sphere.

Nyquist rate

In signal processing, the Nyquist rate, named after Harry Nyquist, is a value (in units of samples per second or hertz, Hz) equal to twice the highest frequency (bandwidth) of a given function or signal. When the function is digitized at a higher sample rate (see ), the resulting discrete-time sequence is said to be free of the distortion known as aliasing. Conversely, for a given sample-rate the corresponding Nyquist frequency in Hz is one-half the sample-rate.

Nyquist frequency

In signal processing, the Nyquist frequency (or folding frequency), named after Harry Nyquist, is a characteristic of a sampler, which converts a continuous function or signal into a discrete sequence. For a given sampling rate (samples per second), the Nyquist frequency (cycles per second) is the frequency whose cycle-length (or period) is twice the interval between samples, thus 0.5 cycle/sample. For example, audio CDs have a sampling rate of 44100 samples/second. At 0.

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