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Lecture# Forces in Physics: Gravitation

Description

This lecture covers the concept of forces in physics, focusing on gravitational forces. It explains how to determine all forces acting on an object at rest, using Newton's laws and vector projections. Specific topics include gravitational forces at a distance, the universal law of gravitation, and gravitational forces between masses. The lecture also discusses gravitational forces in different scenarios, such as on Earth and between celestial bodies.

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Related concepts (60)

Related lectures (4)

Gauss's law for gravity

In physics, Gauss's law for gravity, also known as Gauss's flux theorem for gravity, is a law of physics that is equivalent to Newton's law of universal gravitation. It is named after Carl Friedrich Gauss. It states that the flux (surface integral) of the gravitational field over any closed surface is proportional to the mass enclosed. Gauss's law for gravity is often more convenient to work from than Newton's law. The form of Gauss's law for gravity is mathematically similar to Gauss's law for electrostatics, one of Maxwell's equations.

Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion are three basic laws of classical mechanics that describe the relationship between the motion of an object and the forces acting on it. These laws can be paraphrased as follows: A body remains at rest, or in motion at a constant speed in a straight line, unless acted upon by a force. When a body is acted upon by a force, the time rate of change of its momentum equals the force. If two bodies exert forces on each other, these forces have the same magnitude but opposite directions.

Gravity

In physics, gravity () is a fundamental interaction which causes mutual attraction between all things that have mass. Gravity is, by far, the weakest of the four fundamental interactions, approximately 1038 times weaker than the strong interaction, 1036 times weaker than the electromagnetic force and 1029 times weaker than the weak interaction. As a result, it has no significant influence at the level of subatomic particles.

Newton's law of universal gravitation

Newton's law of universal gravitation is usually stated as that every particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers. The publication of the law has become known as the "first great unification", as it marked the unification of the previously described phenomena of gravity on Earth with known astronomical behaviors.

Gravitational constant

The gravitational constant (also known as the universal gravitational constant, the Newtonian constant of gravitation, or the Cavendish gravitational constant), denoted by the capital letter G, is an empirical physical constant involved in the calculation of gravitational effects in Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation and in Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity. In Newton's law, it is the proportionality constant connecting the gravitational force between two bodies with the product of their masses and the inverse square of their distance.

Covers Newton's three laws of motion, fundamental forces, and exercises, including gravitational and electromagnetic forces.

Explores Newton's laws of motion, fundamental forces in nature, and the unification of interactions.

Introduces structural mechanics concepts like distributed loads, centroids, and equilibrium in 2D and 3D.

Explores gravitational motion equations, energy conservation, black holes, and cosmology.