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Lecture# History of Mechanics

Description

This lecture delves into the historical context of mechanics, focusing on the works of Galileo and Newton. It explores Galileo's final book, considered the first modern book on mechanics, and Newton's Principia, highlighting his formulation of the universal law of gravitation and the three laws of motion.

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Instructor

In MOOCs (9)

Related concepts (34)

Newton's Mechanics

Ce cours de Physique générale – mécanique fourni les outils permettant de maîtriser la mécanique newtonienne du point matériel.

Point System Mechanics

Ce cours de Physique générale – mécanique fourni les outils permettant de maîtriser la mécanique newtonienne du point matériel.

Rigid Body Mechanics

Ce cours de Physique générale – mécanique fourni les outils permettant de maîtriser la mécanique newtonienne du point matériel.

Lagrangian MechanicsCe cours de Physique générale – mécanique fourni les outils permettant de maîtriser la mécanique newtonienne du point matériel.

Newton's Mechanics

Ces quelques leçons de mécanique de Newton font partie d'un cours de formation de base en mécanique Newtonienne présenté sous la forme de 5 MOOCs:

- Mécanique de Newton
- Mécanique du point matérie

Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion are three basic laws of classical mechanics that describe the relationship between the motion of an object and the forces acting on it. These laws can be paraphrased as follows: A body remains at rest, or in motion at a constant speed in a straight line, unless acted upon by a force. When a body is acted upon by a force, the time rate of change of its momentum equals the force. If two bodies exert forces on each other, these forces have the same magnitude but opposite directions.

Gravity

In physics, gravity () is a fundamental interaction which causes mutual attraction between all things that have mass. Gravity is, by far, the weakest of the four fundamental interactions, approximately 1038 times weaker than the strong interaction, 1036 times weaker than the electromagnetic force and 1029 times weaker than the weak interaction. As a result, it has no significant influence at the level of subatomic particles.

Euler's laws of motion

In classical mechanics, Euler's laws of motion are equations of motion which extend Newton's laws of motion for point particle to rigid body motion. They were formulated by Leonhard Euler about 50 years after Isaac Newton formulated his laws. Euler's first law states that the rate of change of linear momentum p of a rigid body is equal to the resultant of all the external forces Fext acting on the body: Internal forces between the particles that make up a body do not contribute to changing the momentum of the body as there is an equal and opposite force resulting in no net effect.

Galileo Galilei

Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), commonly referred to as Galileo Galilei (ˌɡælᵻˈleɪoʊ_ˌɡælᵻˈleɪ , USalsoˌɡælᵻˈliːoʊ_- , ɡaliˈlɛːo ɡaliˈlɛi) or simply Galileo, was an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath. He was born in the city of Pisa, then part of the Duchy of Florence. Galileo has been called the father of observational astronomy, modern-era classical physics, the scientific method, and modern science.

Motion

In physics, motion is the phenomenon by which an object changes its position with respect to time. Motion is mathematically described in terms of displacement, distance, velocity, acceleration, speed, and frame of reference to an observer, measuring the change in position of the body relative to that frame with a change in time. The branch of physics describing the motion of objects without reference to their cause is called kinematics, while the branch studying forces and their effect on motion is called dynamics.