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Lecture# Combinatorial Group Theory

Description

This lecture covers the theory of combinatorial groups, focusing on presenting a group using generators and relators, the concept of free groups, normal subgroups, and group presentations. The instructor discusses the difference between subgroups generated by elements and normal subgroups, provides examples, and explains the importance of understanding group presentations for constructing group quotients.

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Instructor

In course

Related concepts (26)

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Normal subgroup

In abstract algebra, a normal subgroup (also known as an invariant subgroup or self-conjugate subgroup) is a subgroup that is invariant under conjugation by members of the group of which it is a part. In other words, a subgroup of the group is normal in if and only if for all and The usual notation for this relation is Normal subgroups are important because they (and only they) can be used to construct quotient groups of the given group.

Presentation of a group

In mathematics, a presentation is one method of specifying a group. A presentation of a group G comprises a set S of generators—so that every element of the group can be written as a product of powers of some of these generators—and a set R of relations among those generators. We then say G has presentation Informally, G has the above presentation if it is the "freest group" generated by S subject only to the relations R. Formally, the group G is said to have the above presentation if it is isomorphic to the quotient of a free group on S by the normal subgroup generated by the relations R.

Subgroup

In group theory, a branch of mathematics, given a group G under a binary operation ∗, a subset H of G is called a subgroup of G if H also forms a group under the operation ∗. More precisely, H is a subgroup of G if the restriction of ∗ to H × H is a group operation on H. This is often denoted H ≤ G, read as "H is a subgroup of G". The trivial subgroup of any group is the subgroup {e} consisting of just the identity element. A proper subgroup of a group G is a subgroup H which is a proper subset of G (that is, H ≠ G).

Group theory

In abstract algebra, group theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups. The concept of a group is central to abstract algebra: other well-known algebraic structures, such as rings, fields, and vector spaces, can all be seen as groups endowed with additional operations and axioms. Groups recur throughout mathematics, and the methods of group theory have influenced many parts of algebra. Linear algebraic groups and Lie groups are two branches of group theory that have experienced advances and have become subject areas in their own right.

Maximal subgroup

In mathematics, the term maximal subgroup is used to mean slightly different things in different areas of algebra. In group theory, a maximal subgroup H of a group G is a proper subgroup, such that no proper subgroup K contains H strictly. In other words, H is a maximal element of the partially ordered set of subgroups of G that are not equal to G. Maximal subgroups are of interest because of their direct connection with primitive permutation representations of G.

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