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Lecture# Selected Topics in Mathematics

Description

This lecture covers selected topics in mathematics, including natural numbers, integers, rationals, reals, Taylor approximations, algebraic structures, and more. It is aimed at students interested in foundational mathematical concepts and challenges.

Official source

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Related concepts (42)

Construction of the real numbers

In mathematics, there are several equivalent ways of defining the real numbers. One of them is that they form a complete ordered field that does not contain any smaller complete ordered field. Such a definition does not prove that such a complete ordered field exists, and the existence proof consists of constructing a mathematical structure that satisfies the definition. The article presents several such constructions. They are equivalent in the sense that, given the result of any two such constructions, there is a unique isomorphism of ordered field between them.

Rational number

In mathematics, a rational number is a number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction \tfrac p q of two integers, a numerator p and a non-zero denominator q. For example, \tfrac{-3}{7} is a rational number, as is every integer (e.g., 5 = 5/1). The set of all rational numbers, also referred to as "the rationals", the field of rationals or the field of rational numbers is usually denoted by boldface Q, or blackboard bold \Q. A rational number is a real number.

Foundations of mathematics

Foundations of mathematics is the study of the philosophical and logical and/or algorithmic basis of mathematics, or, in a broader sense, the mathematical investigation of what underlies the philosophical theories concerning the nature of mathematics. In this latter sense, the distinction between foundations of mathematics and philosophy of mathematics turns out to be vague. Foundations of mathematics can be conceived as the study of the basic mathematical concepts (set, function, geometrical figure, number, etc.

Quadratic integer

In number theory, quadratic integers are a generalization of the usual integers to quadratic fields. Quadratic integers are algebraic integers of degree two, that is, solutions of equations of the form x2 + bx + c = 0 with b and c (usual) integers. When algebraic integers are considered, the usual integers are often called rational integers. Common examples of quadratic integers are the square roots of rational integers, such as , and the complex number i = , which generates the Gaussian integers.

Eisenstein integer

In mathematics, the Eisenstein integers (named after Gotthold Eisenstein), occasionally also known as Eulerian integers (after Leonhard Euler), are the complex numbers of the form where a and b are integers and is a primitive (hence non-real) cube root of unity. The Eisenstein integers form a triangular lattice in the complex plane, in contrast with the Gaussian integers, which form a square lattice in the complex plane. The Eisenstein integers are a countably infinite set.