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Lecture# Existence of Minimizers: Direct Methods

Description

This lecture covers the direct methods for finding minimizers, focusing on the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the Poisson equation. It discusses weak formulations, regularity conditions, and the application of the Lax-Milgram theorem. The lecture emphasizes the importance of convexity and boundary conditions in determining the minimizer.

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In mathematics, a real-valued function is called convex if the line segment between any two distinct points on the graph of the function lies above the graph between the two points. Equivalently, a function is convex if its epigraph (the set of points on or above the graph of the function) is a convex set. A twice-differentiable function of a single variable is convex if and only if its second derivative is nonnegative on its entire domain.

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In geometry, a subset of a Euclidean space, or more generally an affine space over the reals, is convex if, given any two points in the subset, the subset contains the whole line segment that joins them. Equivalently, a convex set or a convex region is a subset that intersects every line into a single line segment (possibly empty). For example, a solid cube is a convex set, but anything that is hollow or has an indent, for example, a crescent shape, is not convex. The boundary of a convex set is always a convex curve.

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In the mathematical study of differential equations, the Dirichlet (or first-type) boundary condition is a type of boundary condition, named after Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet (1805–1859). When imposed on an ordinary or a partial differential equation, it specifies the values that a solution needs to take along the boundary of the domain. In finite element method (FEM) analysis, essential or Dirichlet boundary condition is defined by weighted-integral form of a differential equation.

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In mathematics, the Robin boundary condition (ˈrɒbɪn; properly ʁɔbɛ̃), or third type boundary condition, is a type of boundary condition, named after Victor Gustave Robin (1855–1897). When imposed on an ordinary or a partial differential equation, it is a specification of a linear combination of the values of a function and the values of its derivative on the boundary of the domain. Other equivalent names in use are Fourier-type condition and radiation condition.

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