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Lecture# Collisionless Systems: Equilibria & Models

Description

This lecture covers the collisionless Boltzmann equation, self-consistent spherical models, Jeans theorems, and DFs from mass distribution. It explores the Eddington formula, isotropic and isothermal models, and the relation between DFs and velocity moments. The lecture also delves into the symmetries and properties of collisionless systems, such as spherical, cylindrical, and Cartesian coordinates. Various DFs are discussed, including ergodic and symmetrical ones, along with velocity dispersions and their implications. The presentation concludes with examples of power law models and analytical solutions for different scenarios.

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In course

Instructor

PHYS-401: Astrophysics III : stellar and galactic dynamics

The aim of this course is to acquire the basic knowledge on specific dynamical phenomena related to the origin, equilibrium, and evolution of star
clusters, galaxies, and galaxy clusters.

Related concepts (68)

Symmetry (geometry)

In geometry, an object has symmetry if there is an operation or transformation (such as translation, scaling, rotation or reflection) that maps the figure/object onto itself (i.e., the object has an invariance under the transform). Thus, a symmetry can be thought of as an immunity to change. For instance, a circle rotated about its center will have the same shape and size as the original circle, as all points before and after the transform would be indistinguishable.

Dispersion relation

In the physical sciences and electrical engineering, dispersion relations describe the effect of dispersion on the properties of waves in a medium. A dispersion relation relates the wavelength or wavenumber of a wave to its frequency. Given the dispersion relation, one can calculate the frequency-dependent phase velocity and group velocity of each sinusoidal component of a wave in the medium, as a function of frequency.

Icosahedral symmetry

In mathematics, and especially in geometry, an object has icosahedral symmetry if it has the same symmetries as a regular icosahedron. Examples of other polyhedra with icosahedral symmetry include the regular dodecahedron (the dual of the icosahedron) and the rhombic triacontahedron. Every polyhedron with icosahedral symmetry has 60 rotational (or orientation-preserving) symmetries and 60 orientation-reversing symmetries (that combine a rotation and a reflection), for a total symmetry order of 120.

Symmetry (physics)

In physics, a symmetry of a physical system is a physical or mathematical feature of the system (observed or intrinsic) that is preserved or remains unchanged under some transformation. A family of particular transformations may be continuous (such as rotation of a circle) or discrete (e.g., reflection of a bilaterally symmetric figure, or rotation of a regular polygon). Continuous and discrete transformations give rise to corresponding types of symmetries.

Density estimation

In statistics, probability density estimation or simply density estimation is the construction of an estimate, based on observed data, of an unobservable underlying probability density function. The unobservable density function is thought of as the density according to which a large population is distributed; the data are usually thought of as a random sample from that population. A variety of approaches to density estimation are used, including Parzen windows and a range of data clustering techniques, including vector quantization.