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Lecture# Fluid Mechanics: Hydrostatics and Pressure Field Equations

Description

This lecture covers the fundamentals of fluid mechanics, focusing on hydrostatics and pressure field equations. Starting with the definition of fluids and viscosity, it progresses to the study of forces on submerged surfaces and Archimedes' principle. The lecture delves into the detailed equations for the pressure field, emphasizing the neglect of shearing faces. It concludes with an exploration of incompressible fluids and the impact of constant gravity on pressure distribution.

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Taylor series

In mathematics, the Taylor series or Taylor expansion of a function is an infinite sum of terms that are expressed in terms of the function's derivatives at a single point. For most common functions, the function and the sum of its Taylor series are equal near this point. Taylor series are named after Brook Taylor, who introduced them in 1715. A Taylor series is also called a Maclaurin series when 0 is the point where the derivatives are considered, after Colin Maclaurin, who made extensive use of this special case of Taylor series in the mid-18th century.

Taylor's theorem

In calculus, Taylor's theorem gives an approximation of a -times differentiable function around a given point by a polynomial of degree , called the -th-order Taylor polynomial. For a smooth function, the Taylor polynomial is the truncation at the order of the Taylor series of the function. The first-order Taylor polynomial is the linear approximation of the function, and the second-order Taylor polynomial is often referred to as the quadratic approximation.

Brook Taylor

Brook Taylor (18 August 1685 – 29 December 1731) was an English mathematician best known for creating Taylor's theorem and the Taylor series, which are important for their use in mathematical analysis. Brook Taylor was born in Edmonton (former Middlesex). Taylor was the son of John Taylor, MP of Patrixbourne, Kent and Olivia Tempest, the daughter of Sir Nicholas Tempest, Baronet of Durham. He entered St John's College, Cambridge, as a fellow-commoner in 1701, and took degrees in LL.B. in 1709 and LL.D. in 1714.

Equation

In mathematics, an equation is a mathematical formula that expresses the equality of two expressions, by connecting them with the equals sign . The word equation and its cognates in other languages may have subtly different meanings; for example, in French an équation is defined as containing one or more variables, while in English, any well-formed formula consisting of two expressions related with an equals sign is an equation. Solving an equation containing variables consists of determining which values of the variables make the equality true.

Quadratic equation

In algebra, a quadratic equation () is any equation that can be rearranged in standard form as where x represents an unknown value, and a, b, and c represent known numbers, where a ≠ 0. (If a = 0 and b ≠ 0 then the equation is linear, not quadratic.) The numbers a, b, and c are the coefficients of the equation and may be distinguished by respectively calling them, the quadratic coefficient, the linear coefficient and the constant coefficient or free term.

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