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Lecture# Euler-Lagrange Equation

Description

This lecture covers the Euler-Lagrange equation in Sobolev spaces, presenting examples of Bolza and Clain problems. It discusses the minimization of functionals, convexity, and weak forms of the Euler-Lagrange equation. The lecture also explores the growth condition, lower semicontinuity, and the minimizer concept.

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In course

MATH-437: Calculus of variations

Introduction to classical Calculus of Variations and a selection of modern techniques.

Related concepts (153)

Related lectures (48)

Euler–Lagrange equation

In the calculus of variations and classical mechanics, the Euler–Lagrange equations are a system of second-order ordinary differential equations whose solutions are stationary points of the given action functional. The equations were discovered in the 1750s by Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler and Italian mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange. Because a differentiable functional is stationary at its local extrema, the Euler–Lagrange equation is useful for solving optimization problems in which, given some functional, one seeks the function minimizing or maximizing it.

Sobolev space

In mathematics, a Sobolev space is a vector space of functions equipped with a norm that is a combination of Lp-norms of the function together with its derivatives up to a given order. The derivatives are understood in a suitable weak sense to make the space complete, i.e. a Banach space. Intuitively, a Sobolev space is a space of functions possessing sufficiently many derivatives for some application domain, such as partial differential equations, and equipped with a norm that measures both the size and regularity of a function.

Differential equation

In mathematics, a differential equation is an equation that relates one or more unknown functions and their derivatives. In applications, the functions generally represent physical quantities, the derivatives represent their rates of change, and the differential equation defines a relationship between the two. Such relations are common; therefore, differential equations play a prominent role in many disciplines including engineering, physics, economics, and biology.

Euler equations (fluid dynamics)

In fluid dynamics, the Euler equations are a set of quasilinear partial differential equations governing adiabatic and inviscid flow. They are named after Leonhard Euler. In particular, they correspond to the Navier–Stokes equations with zero viscosity and zero thermal conductivity. The Euler equations can be applied to incompressible or compressible flow. The incompressible Euler equations consist of Cauchy equations for conservation of mass and balance of momentum, together with the incompressibility condition that the flow velocity is a solenoidal field.

Banach space

In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced ˈbanax) is a complete normed vector space. Thus, a Banach space is a vector space with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors and is complete in the sense that a Cauchy sequence of vectors always converges to a well-defined limit that is within the space. Banach spaces are named after the Polish mathematician Stefan Banach, who introduced this concept and studied it systematically in 1920–1922 along with Hans Hahn and Eduard Helly.

Definition of Sobolew Spaces

Explains the definition of Sobolew spaces and their main properties, focusing on weak denivelre.

Normed Spaces

Covers normed spaces, dual spaces, Banach spaces, Hilbert spaces, weak and strong convergence, reflexive spaces, and the Hahn-Banach theorem.

Sobolev Spaces in Higher Dimensions

Explores Sobolev spaces in higher dimensions, discussing derivatives, properties, and challenges with continuity.

Differential Forms Integration

Covers the integration of differential forms on smooth manifolds, including the concepts of closed and exact forms.

Harmonic Forms and Riemann Surfaces

Explores harmonic forms on Riemann surfaces, covering uniqueness of solutions and the Riemann bilinear identity.