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Lecture# Approximation of Functions

Description

This lecture covers the topic of approximating functions using polynomials through the method of interpolation. The instructor explains the process step by step, from defining the partition of an interval to demonstrating the regularity of the error term. Various concepts such as the theorem of Rolle and the phenomenon of Runge are discussed in the context of function approximation. The lecture emphasizes the importance of choosing optimal points for interpolation to minimize errors and explores the impact of different types of functions on the accuracy of the approximation.

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Related concepts (150)

MATH-250: Numerical analysis

Construction and analysis of numerical methods for the solution of problems from linear algebra, integration, approximation, and differentiation.

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Legendre polynomials

In mathematics, Legendre polynomials, named after Adrien-Marie Legendre (1782), are a system of complete and orthogonal polynomials with a vast number of mathematical properties and numerous applications. They can be defined in many ways, and the various definitions highlight different aspects as well as suggest generalizations and connections to different mathematical structures and physical and numerical applications. Closely related to the Legendre polynomials are associated Legendre polynomials, Legendre functions, Legendre functions of the second kind, and associated Legendre functions.

Laguerre polynomials

In mathematics, the Laguerre polynomials, named after Edmond Laguerre (1834–1886), are solutions of Laguerre's differential equation: which is a second-order linear differential equation. This equation has nonsingular solutions only if n is a non-negative integer. Sometimes the name Laguerre polynomials is used for solutions of where n is still a non-negative integer. Then they are also named generalized Laguerre polynomials, as will be done here (alternatively associated Laguerre polynomials or, rarely, Sonine polynomials, after their inventor Nikolay Yakovlevich Sonin).

Orthogonal polynomials

In mathematics, an orthogonal polynomial sequence is a family of polynomials such that any two different polynomials in the sequence are orthogonal to each other under some inner product. The most widely used orthogonal polynomials are the classical orthogonal polynomials, consisting of the Hermite polynomials, the Laguerre polynomials and the Jacobi polynomials. The Gegenbauer polynomials form the most important class of Jacobi polynomials; they include the Chebyshev polynomials, and the Legendre polynomials as special cases.

Hermite polynomials

In mathematics, the Hermite polynomials are a classical orthogonal polynomial sequence. The polynomials arise in: signal processing as Hermitian wavelets for wavelet transform analysis probability, such as the Edgeworth series, as well as in connection with Brownian motion; combinatorics, as an example of an Appell sequence, obeying the umbral calculus; numerical analysis as Gaussian quadrature; physics, where they give rise to the eigenstates of the quantum harmonic oscillator; and they also occur in some cases of the heat equation (when the term is present); systems theory in connection with nonlinear operations on Gaussian noise.

Bernoulli polynomials

In mathematics, the Bernoulli polynomials, named after Jacob Bernoulli, combine the Bernoulli numbers and binomial coefficients. They are used for series expansion of functions, and with the Euler–MacLaurin formula. These polynomials occur in the study of many special functions and, in particular, the Riemann zeta function and the Hurwitz zeta function. They are an Appell sequence (i.e. a Sheffer sequence for the ordinary derivative operator). For the Bernoulli polynomials, the number of crossings of the x-axis in the unit interval does not go up with the degree.

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