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Lecture# Uniform Motion: Acceleration and Reference Frames

Description

This lecture covers the description of uniformly accelerated motion, the concept of reference frames, and the calculation of average velocity and displacement. It also discusses the importance of choosing the right reference frame and units for measurements, as well as the distinction between average and instantaneous velocity and acceleration. The instructor demonstrates these concepts through examples like a moving train and the motion of a ball. The lecture concludes with equations for uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion and the calculation of average acceleration. Various systems of units are presented, including the International System (SI) and the centimeter-gram-second (cgs) system.

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Velocity

Velocity is the speed and the direction of motion of an object. Velocity is a fundamental concept in kinematics, the branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of bodies. Velocity is a physical vector quantity: both magnitude and direction are needed to define it. The scalar absolute value (magnitude) of velocity is called , being a coherent derived unit whose quantity is measured in the SI (metric system) as metres per second (m/s or m⋅s−1). For example, "5 metres per second" is a scalar, whereas "5 metres per second east" is a vector.

Acceleration

In mechanics, acceleration is the rate of change of the velocity of an object with respect to time. Accelerations are vector quantities (in that they have magnitude and direction). The orientation of an object's acceleration is given by the orientation of the net force acting on that object. The magnitude of an object's acceleration, as described by Newton's Second Law, is the combined effect of two causes: the net balance of all external forces acting onto that object — magnitude is directly proportional to this net resulting force; that object's mass, depending on the materials out of which it is made — magnitude is inversely proportional to the object's mass.

Angular velocity

In physics, angular velocity (symbol ω, sometimes Ω), also known as angular frequency vector, is a pseudovector representation of how the angular position or orientation of an object changes with time, i.e. how quickly an object rotates (spins or revolves) around an axis of rotation and how fast the axis itself changes direction. The magnitude of the pseudovector, , represents the angular speed (or angular frequency), the rate at which the object rotates (spins or revolves).

Metric system

The metric system is a system of measurement that succeeded the decimalised system based on the metre, which had been introduced in France in the 1790s. The historical development of these systems culminated in the definition of the International System of Units (SI) in the mid-20th century, under the oversight of an international standards body. Adopting the metric system is known as metrication. The historical evolution of metric systems has resulted in the recognition of several principles.

X Window System

The X Window System (X11, or simply X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on Unix-like operating systems. X provides the basic framework for a GUI environment: drawing and moving windows on the display device and interacting with a mouse and keyboard. X does not mandate the user interface - this is handled by individual programs. As such, the visual styling of X-based environments varies greatly; different programs may present radically different interfaces.