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Lecture# Sets: Fundamentals and Operations

Description

This lecture covers the fundamental concepts of sets, including set notation, set equality, subsets, power sets, and set operations. It explores the cardinality of sets, set members, set builder notation, interval notation, and set theory axioms. The lecture also delves into set operations such as union, intersection, difference, symmetric difference, and complements.

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Related concepts (80)

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Set theory

Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch of mathematics, is mostly concerned with those that are relevant to mathematics as a whole. The modern study of set theory was initiated by the German mathematicians Richard Dedekind and Georg Cantor in the 1870s. In particular, Georg Cantor is commonly considered the founder of set theory.

Empty set

In mathematics, the empty set is the unique set having no elements; its size or cardinality (count of elements in a set) is zero. Some axiomatic set theories ensure that the empty set exists by including an axiom of empty set, while in other theories, its existence can be deduced. Many possible properties of sets are vacuously true for the empty set. Any set other than the empty set is called non-empty. In some textbooks and popularizations, the empty set is referred to as the "null set".

Finite set

In mathematics, particularly set theory, a finite set is a set that has a finite number of elements. Informally, a finite set is a set which one could in principle count and finish counting. For example, is a finite set with five elements. The number of elements of a finite set is a natural number (possibly zero) and is called the cardinality (or the cardinal number) of the set. A set that is not a finite set is called an infinite set.

Universal set

In set theory, a universal set is a set which contains all objects, including itself. In set theory as usually formulated, it can be proven in multiple ways that a universal set does not exist. However, some non-standard variants of set theory include a universal set. Many set theories do not allow for the existence of a universal set. There are several different arguments for its non-existence, based on different choices of axioms for set theory. In Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, the axiom of regularity and axiom of pairing prevent any set from containing itself.

Set-builder notation

In set theory and its applications to logic, mathematics, and computer science, set-builder notation is a mathematical notation for describing a set by enumerating its elements, or stating the properties that its members must satisfy. Defining sets by properties is also known as set comprehension, set abstraction or as defining a set's intension. Set (mathematics)#Roster notation A set can be described directly by enumerating all of its elements between curly brackets, as in the following two examples: is the set containing the four numbers 3, 7, 15, and 31, and nothing else.

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