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Lecture# Logic and Sets

Description

This lecture covers the fundamental concepts of logic and sets, focusing on understanding proofs, structures, algorithms, and probabilities. It introduces set notation, operations, and cardinality, along with the principles of subsets, power sets, and set equality. The lecture also delves into the Cartesian product, truth sets of predicates, and set operations like union, intersection, difference, and complement. Additionally, it explores the symmetric difference, generalized unions, and intersections. Through examples and exercises, students learn to apply these concepts in various mathematical contexts.

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Related concepts (269)

Empty set

In mathematics, the empty set is the unique set having no elements; its size or cardinality (count of elements in a set) is zero. Some axiomatic set theories ensure that the empty set exists by including an axiom of empty set, while in other theories, its existence can be deduced. Many possible properties of sets are vacuously true for the empty set. Any set other than the empty set is called non-empty. In some textbooks and popularizations, the empty set is referred to as the "null set".

Finite set

In mathematics, particularly set theory, a finite set is a set that has a finite number of elements. Informally, a finite set is a set which one could in principle count and finish counting. For example, is a finite set with five elements. The number of elements of a finite set is a natural number (possibly zero) and is called the cardinality (or the cardinal number) of the set. A set that is not a finite set is called an infinite set.

Naive set theory

Naive set theory is any of several theories of sets used in the discussion of the foundations of mathematics. Unlike axiomatic set theories, which are defined using formal logic, naive set theory is defined informally, in natural language. It describes the aspects of mathematical sets familiar in discrete mathematics (for example Venn diagrams and symbolic reasoning about their Boolean algebra), and suffices for the everyday use of set theory concepts in contemporary mathematics.

Union (set theory)

In set theory, the union (denoted by ∪) of a collection of sets is the set of all elements in the collection. It is one of the fundamental operations through which sets can be combined and related to each other. A refers to a union of zero () sets and it is by definition equal to the empty set. For explanation of the symbols used in this article, refer to the table of mathematical symbols. The union of two sets A and B is the set of elements which are in A, in B, or in both A and B.

Definition

A definition is a statement of the meaning of a term (a word, phrase, or other set of symbols). Definitions can be classified into two large categories: intensional definitions (which try to give the sense of a term), and extensional definitions (which try to list the objects that a term describes). Another important category of definitions is the class of ostensive definitions, which convey the meaning of a term by pointing out examples. A term may have many different senses and multiple meanings, and thus require multiple definitions.

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