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Lecture# Singular Values: Definitions and Properties

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This lecture covers the concept of singular values in linear algebra, focusing on the diagonalization of matrices, the existence of singular value decomposition, and the properties of singular values and eigenvectors. It also discusses the relationship between singular values and eigenvalues, as well as practical examples of finding singular values in matrices.

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In linear algebra, an eigenvector (ˈaɪgənˌvɛktər) or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a nonzero vector that changes at most by a constant factor when that linear transformation is applied to it. The corresponding eigenvalue, often represented by , is the multiplying factor. Geometrically, a transformation matrix rotates, stretches, or shears the vectors it acts upon. The eigenvectors for a linear transformation matrix are the set of vectors that are only stretched, with no rotation or shear.

In mathematics, in particular functional analysis, the singular values, or s-numbers of a compact operator acting between Hilbert spaces and , are the square roots of the (necessarily non-negative) eigenvalues of the self-adjoint operator (where denotes the adjoint of ). The singular values are non-negative real numbers, usually listed in decreasing order (σ1(T), σ2(T), ...). The largest singular value σ1(T) is equal to the operator norm of T (see Min-max theorem).

In linear algebra, the singular value decomposition (SVD) is a factorization of a real or complex matrix. It generalizes the eigendecomposition of a square normal matrix with an orthonormal eigenbasis to any matrix. It is related to the polar decomposition. Specifically, the singular value decomposition of an complex matrix M is a factorization of the form where U is an complex unitary matrix, is an rectangular diagonal matrix with non-negative real numbers on the diagonal, V is an complex unitary matrix, and is the conjugate transpose of V.

In linear algebra, eigendecomposition is the factorization of a matrix into a canonical form, whereby the matrix is represented in terms of its eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Only diagonalizable matrices can be factorized in this way. When the matrix being factorized is a normal or real symmetric matrix, the decomposition is called "spectral decomposition", derived from the spectral theorem. Eigenvalue, eigenvector and eigenspace A (nonzero) vector v of dimension N is an eigenvector of a square N × N matrix A if it satisfies a linear equation of the form for some scalar λ.

In linear algebra, a square matrix is called diagonalizable or non-defective if it is similar to a diagonal matrix, i.e., if there exists an invertible matrix and a diagonal matrix such that , or equivalently . (Such , are not unique.) For a finite-dimensional vector space , a linear map is called diagonalizable if there exists an ordered basis of consisting of eigenvectors of .

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