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Lecture# Diagonalization of Matrices

Description

This lecture delves into the concept of diagonalization of matrices, focusing on eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The instructor explains the conditions for a matrix to be diagonalizable, the importance of eigenvalues, and the process of finding eigenvectors. Through examples, the lecture covers the calculation of characteristic polynomials, determining linearly independent eigenvectors, and understanding the geometric and algebraic multiplicities of eigenvalues. The lecture also explores the relationship between the dimensions of eigenspaces and the diagonalizability of matrices, emphasizing the significance of bases and subspaces in the context of linear algebra.

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In course

Instructor

MATH-111(e): Linear Algebra

L'objectif du cours est d'introduire les notions de base de l'algèbre linéaire et ses applications.

Related concepts (182)

Linear independence

In the theory of vector spaces, a set of vectors is said to be if there exists no nontrivial linear combination of the vectors that equals the zero vector. If such a linear combination exists, then the vectors are said to be . These concepts are central to the definition of dimension. A vector space can be of finite dimension or infinite dimension depending on the maximum number of linearly independent vectors. The definition of linear dependence and the ability to determine whether a subset of vectors in a vector space is linearly dependent are central to determining the dimension of a vector space.

Linear span

In mathematics, the linear span (also called the linear hull or just span) of a set S of vectors (from a vector space), denoted span(S), is defined as the set of all linear combinations of the vectors in S. For example, two linearly independent vectors span a plane. The linear span can be characterized either as the intersection of all linear subspaces that contain S, or as the smallest subspace containing S. The linear span of a set of vectors is therefore a vector space itself. Spans can be generalized to matroids and modules.

Basis (linear algebra)

In mathematics, a set B of vectors in a vector space V is called a basis (: bases) if every element of V may be written in a unique way as a finite linear combination of elements of B. The coefficients of this linear combination are referred to as components or coordinates of the vector with respect to B. The elements of a basis are called . Equivalently, a set B is a basis if its elements are linearly independent and every element of V is a linear combination of elements of B.

Rank (linear algebra)

In linear algebra, the rank of a matrix A is the dimension of the vector space generated (or spanned) by its columns. This corresponds to the maximal number of linearly independent columns of A. This, in turn, is identical to the dimension of the vector space spanned by its rows. Rank is thus a measure of the "nondegenerateness" of the system of linear equations and linear transformation encoded by A. There are multiple equivalent definitions of rank. A matrix's rank is one of its most fundamental characteristics.

Jordan normal form

In linear algebra, a Jordan normal form, also known as a Jordan canonical form (JCF), is an upper triangular matrix of a particular form called a Jordan matrix representing a linear operator on a finite-dimensional vector space with respect to some basis. Such a matrix has each non-zero off-diagonal entry equal to 1, immediately above the main diagonal (on the superdiagonal), and with identical diagonal entries to the left and below them. Let V be a vector space over a field K.

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