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Lecture# Complexity: Approximation-Estimation Trade-off

Description

This lecture covers the explicit and implicit control of complexity in hypothesis spaces, including variables, polynomial functions, spline functions, wavelet approximations, and RKHS bandwidth. It also discusses risk decomposition, the approximation-estimation trade-off, overfitting, regularization, prediction error, bias-variance tradeoff, and the complexity of models.

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Related concepts (61)

In course

MATH-412: Statistical machine learning

A course on statistical machine learning for supervised and unsupervised learning

Interpolation

In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, interpolation is a type of estimation, a method of constructing (finding) new data points based on the range of a discrete set of known data points. In engineering and science, one often has a number of data points, obtained by sampling or experimentation, which represent the values of a function for a limited number of values of the independent variable. It is often required to interpolate; that is, estimate the value of that function for an intermediate value of the independent variable.

Overfitting

In mathematical modeling, overfitting is "the production of an analysis that corresponds too closely or exactly to a particular set of data, and may therefore fail to fit to additional data or predict future observations reliably". An overfitted model is a mathematical model that contains more parameters than can be justified by the data. In a mathematical sense, these parameters represent the degree of a polynomial. The essence of overfitting is to have unknowingly extracted some of the residual variation (i.

Multivariate interpolation

In numerical analysis, multivariate interpolation is interpolation on functions of more than one variable (multivariate functions); when the variates are spatial coordinates, it is also known as spatial interpolation. The function to be interpolated is known at given points and the interpolation problem consists of yielding values at arbitrary points . Multivariate interpolation is particularly important in geostatistics, where it is used to create a digital elevation model from a set of points on the Earth's surface (for example, spot heights in a topographic survey or depths in a hydrographic survey).

Polynomial interpolation

In numerical analysis, polynomial interpolation is the interpolation of a given bivariate data set by the polynomial of lowest possible degree that passes through the points of the dataset. Given a set of n + 1 data points , with no two the same, a polynomial function is said to interpolate the data if for each . There is always a unique such polynomial, commonly given by two explicit formulas, the Lagrange polynomials and Newton polynomials.

Polynomial

In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of indeterminates (also called variables) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and positive-integer powers of variables. An example of a polynomial of a single indeterminate x is x2 − 4x + 7. An example with three indeterminates is x3 + 2xyz2 − yz + 1. Polynomials appear in many areas of mathematics and science.