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Lecture# Fluid Dynamics: Viscous Flow

Description

This lecture covers the dynamics of viscous fluids, starting with the Bernoulli equation and d'Alembert's paradox. It then explores the effects of drag force, lift force, and turbulence on aircraft wings, as well as the concept of stall limit. The lecture also delves into drag coefficients, the Magnus effect, and the influence of viscosity on fluid flow. It discusses the measurement and significance of viscosity, including its role in generating turbulence and energy losses in fluid transport. Additionally, it touches on non-Newtonian fluids and showcases an experiment with bitumen, the most viscous fluid known.

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Related concepts (26)

PHYS-201(c): General physics : electromagnetism

Introduction à la mécanique des fluides, à l'électromagnétisme et aux phénomènes ondulatoires

In fluid mechanics, an aerodynamic force is a force exerted on a body by the air (or other gas) in which the body is immersed, and is due to the relative motion between the body and the gas. There are two causes of aerodynamic force: the normal force due to the pressure on the surface of the body the shear force due to the viscosity of the gas, also known as skin friction. Pressure acts normal to the surface, and shear force acts parallel to the surface. Both forces act locally.

Stokes flow (named after George Gabriel Stokes), also named creeping flow or creeping motion, is a type of fluid flow where advective inertial forces are small compared with viscous forces. The Reynolds number is low, i.e. . This is a typical situation in flows where the fluid velocities are very slow, the viscosities are very large, or the length-scales of the flow are very small. Creeping flow was first studied to understand lubrication. In nature, this type of flow occurs in the swimming of microorganisms and sperm.

In fluid dynamics, laminar flow (ˈlæmənər) is characterized by fluid particles following smooth paths in layers, with each layer moving smoothly past the adjacent layers with little or no mixing. At low velocities, the fluid tends to flow without lateral mixing, and adjacent layers slide past one another like playing cards. There are no cross-currents perpendicular to the direction of flow, nor eddies or swirls of fluids. In laminar flow, the motion of the particles of the fluid is very orderly with particles close to a solid surface moving in straight lines parallel to that surface.

The Navier–Stokes equations (nævˈjeː_stəʊks ) are partial differential equations which describe the motion of viscous fluid substances, named after French engineer and physicist Claude-Louis Navier and Irish physicist and mathematician George Gabriel Stokes. They were developed over several decades of progressively building the theories, from 1822 (Navier) to 1842-1850 (Stokes). The Navier–Stokes equations mathematically express momentum balance and conservation of mass for Newtonian fluids.

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