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Lecture# Orientation Calculation in Geomatics

Description

This lecture covers the process of determining the orientation of a station using a theodolite in geomatics. It explains how to calculate the bearing between the station and a known point, set up the theodolite, and use geomatics elements. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the orientation calculation, emphasizing the importance of having at least two fixed points for accurate results. The lecture also discusses the significance of making multiple determinations and direction measures to detect faults and ensure precision in the orientation process.

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Related concepts (18)

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Fixed point (mathematics)

hatnote|1=Fixed points in mathematics are not to be confused with other uses of "fixed point", or stationary points where math|1=f(x) = 0. In mathematics, a fixed point (sometimes shortened to fixpoint), also known as an invariant point, is a value that does not change under a given transformation. Specifically for functions, a fixed point is an element that is mapped to itself by the function. Formally, c is a fixed point of a function f if c belongs to both the domain and the codomain of f, and f(c) = c.

Fixed-point iteration

In numerical analysis, fixed-point iteration is a method of computing fixed points of a function. More specifically, given a function defined on the real numbers with real values and given a point in the domain of , the fixed-point iteration is which gives rise to the sequence of iterated function applications which is hoped to converge to a point . If is continuous, then one can prove that the obtained is a fixed point of , i.e., More generally, the function can be defined on any metric space with values in that same space.

Fixed-point theorem

In mathematics, a fixed-point theorem is a result saying that a function F will have at least one fixed point (a point x for which F(x) = x), under some conditions on F that can be stated in general terms. The Banach fixed-point theorem (1922) gives a general criterion guaranteeing that, if it is satisfied, the procedure of iterating a function yields a fixed point.

Kakutani fixed-point theorem

In mathematical analysis, the Kakutani fixed-point theorem is a fixed-point theorem for set-valued functions. It provides sufficient conditions for a set-valued function defined on a convex, compact subset of a Euclidean space to have a fixed point, i.e. a point which is mapped to a set containing it. The Kakutani fixed point theorem is a generalization of the Brouwer fixed point theorem. The Brouwer fixed point theorem is a fundamental result in topology which proves the existence of fixed points for continuous functions defined on compact, convex subsets of Euclidean spaces.

Numerical methods for ordinary differential equations

Numerical methods for ordinary differential equations are methods used to find numerical approximations to the solutions of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Their use is also known as "numerical integration", although this term can also refer to the computation of integrals. Many differential equations cannot be solved exactly. For practical purposes, however – such as in engineering – a numeric approximation to the solution is often sufficient. The algorithms studied here can be used to compute such an approximation.