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Lecture# Rotating Vectors in Physics 1

Description

This lecture covers the concept of rotating vectors in physics, focusing on the relationship between the norm of a vector and the angular speed of rotation. It also delves into special cases like uniform circular motion and different coordinate systems such as spherical, cylindrical, and Cartesian. The instructor explains how to parametrize points using real numbers and discusses examples to illustrate these concepts.

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In course

Related concepts (103)

Instructor

PHYS-101(g): General physics : mechanics

Le but du cours de physique générale est de donner à l'étudiant les notions de base nécessaires à la compréhension des phénomènes physiques. L'objectif est atteint lorsque l'étudiant est capable de pr

Curvilinear coordinates

In geometry, curvilinear coordinates are a coordinate system for Euclidean space in which the coordinate lines may be curved. These coordinates may be derived from a set of Cartesian coordinates by using a transformation that is locally invertible (a one-to-one map) at each point. This means that one can convert a point given in a Cartesian coordinate system to its curvilinear coordinates and back. The name curvilinear coordinates, coined by the French mathematician Lamé, derives from the fact that the coordinate surfaces of the curvilinear systems are curved.

Spherical coordinate system

In mathematics, a spherical coordinate system is a coordinate system for three-dimensional space where the position of a point is specified by three numbers: the radial distance of that point from a fixed origin; its polar angle measured from a fixed polar axis or zenith direction; and the azimuthal angle of its orthogonal projection on a reference plane that passes through the origin and is orthogonal to the fixed axis, measured from another fixed reference direction on that plane.

Coordinate system

In geometry, a coordinate system is a system that uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space. The order of the coordinates is significant, and they are sometimes identified by their position in an ordered tuple and sometimes by a letter, as in "the x-coordinate". The coordinates are taken to be real numbers in elementary mathematics, but may be complex numbers or elements of a more abstract system such as a commutative ring.

Acceleration

In mechanics, acceleration is the rate of change of the velocity of an object with respect to time. Accelerations are vector quantities (in that they have magnitude and direction). The orientation of an object's acceleration is given by the orientation of the net force acting on that object. The magnitude of an object's acceleration, as described by Newton's Second Law, is the combined effect of two causes: the net balance of all external forces acting onto that object — magnitude is directly proportional to this net resulting force; that object's mass, depending on the materials out of which it is made — magnitude is inversely proportional to the object's mass.

Cylindrical coordinate system

A cylindrical coordinate system is a three-dimensional coordinate system that specifies point positions by the distance from a chosen reference axis (axis L in the image opposite), the direction from the axis relative to a chosen reference direction (axis A), and the distance from a chosen reference plane perpendicular to the axis (plane containing the purple section). The latter distance is given as a positive or negative number depending on which side of the reference plane faces the point.

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Explores polar coordinates, position, velocity, and acceleration vectors in Cartesian and polar systems, including cylindrical and spherical coordinates.

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Covers polar and spherical coordinate systems, position vectors, equations of motion, and Frenet frame concepts.