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Lecture# Complex Hyperbolic and Trigonometric Functions

Description

This lecture introduces complex hyperbolic functions as generalizations of real cases, defining cosh(z) = (exp(z) + exp(-z)) and sinh(z) = (exp(z) - exp(-z)). It explores the properties of these functions, such as cosh(z) - sinh(z) = 1, and their relationships with exponential functions. The lecture also covers complex trigonometric functions, defining cos(z) = cosh(iz) and sin(z) = -i sinh(iz), with identities like cos^2(z) + sin^2(z) = 1. It delves into the periodicity of these functions and their connections to exponential functions, providing insights into their behavior in the complex plane.

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Related concepts (41)

Hyperbolic functions

In mathematics, hyperbolic functions are analogues of the ordinary trigonometric functions, but defined using the hyperbola rather than the circle. Just as the points (cos t, sin t) form a circle with a unit radius, the points (cosh t, sinh t) form the right half of the unit hyperbola. Also, similarly to how the derivatives of sin(t) and cos(t) are cos(t) and –sin(t) respectively, the derivatives of sinh(t) and cosh(t) are cosh(t) and +sinh(t) respectively. Hyperbolic functions occur in the calculations of angles and distances in hyperbolic geometry.

Complex plane

In mathematics, the complex plane is the plane formed by the complex numbers, with a Cartesian coordinate system such that the x-axis, called the real axis, is formed by the real numbers, and the y-axis, called the imaginary axis, is formed by the imaginary numbers. The complex plane allows a geometric interpretation of complex numbers. Under addition, they add like vectors.

Complex number

In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted i, called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation ; every complex number can be expressed in the form , where a and b are real numbers. Because no real number satisfies the above equation, i was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number , a is called the , and b is called the . The set of complex numbers is denoted by either of the symbols or C.

Hyperbolic sector

A hyperbolic sector is a region of the Cartesian plane bounded by a hyperbola and two rays from the origin to it. For example, the two points (a, 1/a) and (b, 1/b) on the rectangular hyperbola xy = 1, or the corresponding region when this hyperbola is re-scaled and its orientation is altered by a rotation leaving the center at the origin, as with the unit hyperbola. A hyperbolic sector in standard position has a = 1 and b > 1. Hyperbolic sectors are the basis for the hyperbolic functions.

Inverse hyperbolic functions

In mathematics, the inverse hyperbolic functions are inverses of the hyperbolic functions, analogous to the inverse circular functions. There are six in common use: inverse hyperbolic sine, inverse hyperbolic cosine, inverse hyperbolic tangent, inverse hyperbolic cosecant, inverse hyperbolic secant, and inverse hyperbolic cotangent. They are commonly denoted by the symbols for the hyperbolic functions, prefixed with arc- or ar-.

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