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Lecture# Convexity and Concavity

Description

This lecture introduces the mathematical definitions of convexity and concavity, explaining how a function is convex or concave over a closed interval. It also covers stationary points, local and global maxima and minima, and inflection points, providing rigorous mathematical definitions and graphical interpretations.

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In MOOCs (9)

Related concepts (14)

Analyse I

Le contenu de ce cours correspond à celui du cours d'Analyse I, comme il est enseigné pour les étudiantes et les étudiants de l'EPFL pendant leur premier semestre. Chaque chapitre du cours correspond

Analyse I (partie 1) : Prélude, notions de base, les nombres réels

Concepts de base de l'analyse réelle et introduction aux nombres réels.

Analyse I (partie 2) : Introduction aux nombres complexes

Introduction aux nombres complexes

Analyse I (partie 3) : Suites de nombres réels I et II

Suites de nombres réels.

Analyse I (partie 4) : Limite d'une fonction, fonctions continues

Limite d’une fonction et fonctions continues

Stationary point

In mathematics, particularly in calculus, a stationary point of a differentiable function of one variable is a point on the graph of the function where the function's derivative is zero. Informally, it is a point where the function "stops" increasing or decreasing (hence the name). For a differentiable function of several real variables, a stationary point is a point on the surface of the graph where all its partial derivatives are zero (equivalently, the gradient is zero).

Fermat's theorem (stationary points)

In mathematics, Fermat's theorem (also known as interior extremum theorem) is a method to find local maxima and minima of differentiable functions on open sets by showing that every local extremum of the function is a stationary point (the function's derivative is zero at that point). Fermat's theorem is a theorem in real analysis, named after Pierre de Fermat. By using Fermat's theorem, the potential extrema of a function , with derivative , are found by solving an equation in .

Maximum and minimum

In mathematical analysis, the maximum and minimum of a function are, respectively, the largest and smallest value taken by the function. Known generically as extremum, they may be defined either within a given range (the local or relative extrema) or on the entire domain (the global or absolute extrema) of a function. Pierre de Fermat was one of the first mathematicians to propose a general technique, adequality, for finding the maxima and minima of functions.

Inflection point

In differential calculus and differential geometry, an inflection point, point of inflection, flex, or inflection (rarely inflexion) is a point on a smooth plane curve at which the curvature changes sign. In particular, in the case of the graph of a function, it is a point where the function changes from being concave (concave downward) to convex (concave upward), or vice versa.

Second derivative

In calculus, the second derivative, or the second-order derivative, of a function f is the derivative of the derivative of f. Informally, the second derivative can be phrased as "the rate of change of the rate of change"; for example, the second derivative of the position of an object with respect to time is the instantaneous acceleration of the object, or the rate at which the velocity of the object is changing with respect to time. In Leibniz notation: where a is acceleration, v is velocity, t is time, x is position, and d is the instantaneous "delta" or change.

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Convexity and Concavity: Inflection Points, Taylor Expansion, and Darboux SumsMATH-101(en): Analysis I (English)

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