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Lecture# Generalized Integrals: Convergence and Divergence

Description

This lecture covers the concept of generalized integrals, focusing on determining convergence or divergence. The instructor explains the criteria for convergence, using examples with functions that are not continuous at certain points or on unbounded intervals. Various techniques, such as comparison and change of variables, are demonstrated to evaluate integrals. The lecture also discusses the importance of understanding the behavior of functions near singular points and the application of the comparison theorem. Examples involving rational functions and trigonometric integrals are provided to illustrate the theoretical concepts.

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Related concepts (247)

MATH-101(e): Analysis I

Étudier les concepts fondamentaux d'analyse et le calcul différentiel et intégral des fonctions réelles d'une variable.

Absolute convergence

In mathematics, an infinite series of numbers is said to converge absolutely (or to be absolutely convergent) if the sum of the absolute values of the summands is finite. More precisely, a real or complex series is said to converge absolutely if for some real number Similarly, an improper integral of a function, is said to converge absolutely if the integral of the absolute value of the integrand is finite—that is, if Absolute convergence is important for the study of infinite series because its definition is strong enough to have properties of finite sums that not all convergent series possess – a convergent series that is not absolutely convergent is called conditionally convergent, while absolutely convergent series behave "nicely".

Convergence tests

In mathematics, convergence tests are methods of testing for the convergence, conditional convergence, absolute convergence, interval of convergence or divergence of an infinite series . If the limit of the summand is undefined or nonzero, that is , then the series must diverge. In this sense, the partial sums are Cauchy only if this limit exists and is equal to zero. The test is inconclusive if the limit of the summand is zero. This is also known as the nth-term test, test for divergence, or the divergence test.

Conditional convergence

In mathematics, a series or integral is said to be conditionally convergent if it converges, but it does not converge absolutely. More precisely, a series of real numbers is said to converge conditionally if exists (as a finite real number, i.e. not or ), but A classic example is the alternating harmonic series given by which converges to , but is not absolutely convergent (see Harmonic series). Bernhard Riemann proved that a conditionally convergent series may be rearranged to converge to any value at all, including ∞ or −∞; see Riemann series theorem.

Limit inferior and limit superior

In mathematics, the limit inferior and limit superior of a sequence can be thought of as limiting (that is, eventual and extreme) bounds on the sequence. They can be thought of in a similar fashion for a function (see limit of a function). For a set, they are the infimum and supremum of the set's limit points, respectively. In general, when there are multiple objects around which a sequence, function, or set accumulates, the inferior and superior limits extract the smallest and largest of them; the type of object and the measure of size is context-dependent, but the notion of extreme limits is invariant.

Limit (mathematics)

In mathematics, a limit is the value that a function (or sequence) approaches as the input (or index) approaches some value. Limits are essential to calculus and mathematical analysis, and are used to define continuity, derivatives, and integrals. The concept of a limit of a sequence is further generalized to the concept of a limit of a topological net, and is closely related to and direct limit in . In formulas, a limit of a function is usually written as (although a few authors use "Lt" instead of "lim") and is read as "the limit of f of x as x approaches c equals L".

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