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Person# Yash Lodha

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MATH-735: Topics in geometric group theory

The goal of this course/seminar is to introduce the students to some contemporary aspects of geometric group theory. Emphasis will be put on Artin's Braid groups and Thompson's groups.

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Homeomorphism

In the mathematical field of topology, a homeomorphism (, named by Henri Poincaré), also called topological isomorphism, or bicontinuous function, is a bijective and continuous function between topo

Diffeomorphism

In mathematics, a diffeomorphism is an isomorphism of smooth manifolds. It is an invertible function that maps one differentiable manifold to another such that both the function and its inverse are

Free abelian group

In mathematics, a free abelian group is an abelian group with a basis. Being an abelian group means that it is a set with an addition operation that is associative, commutative, and invertible. A bas

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We show that the finitely generated simple left orderable groups G(rho) constructed by the first two authors in Hyde and Lodha [Finitely generated infinite simple groups of homeomorphisms of the real line. Invent. Math. (2019), doi:10.1007/s00222-01900880-7] are uniformly perfect-each element in the group can be expressed as a product of three commutators of elements in the group. This implies that the group does not admit any homogeneous quasimorphism. Moreover, any non-trivial action of the group on the circle, which lifts to an action on the real line, admits a global fixed point. It follows that any faithful action on the real line without a global fixed point is globally contracting. This answers Question 4 of the third author [A. Navas. Group actions on 1-manifolds: a list of very concrete open questions. Proceedings of the International Congress of Mathematicians, Vol. 2. Eds. B. Sirakov, P. Ney de Souza and M. Viana. World Scientific, Singapore, 2018, pp, 2029-2056], which asks whether such a group exists. This question has also been answered simultaneously and independently, using completely different methods, by Matte Bon and Triestino [Groups of piecewise linear homeomorphisms of flows. Preprint, 2018, arXiv:1811.12256]. To prove our results, we provide a characterization of elements of the group G(rho) which is a useful new tool in the study of these examples.

We study actions of groups by orientation preserving homeomorphisms on R (or an interval) that are minimal, have solvable germs at +/-infinity and contain a pair of elements of a certain dynamical type. We call such actions coherent. We establish that such an action is rigid, i.e., any two such actions of the same group are topologically conjugate. We also establish that the underlying group is always non-elementary amenable, but satisfies that every proper quotient is solvable. The structure theory we develop allows us to prove a plethora of non-embeddability statements concerning groups of piecewise linear and piecewise projective homeomorphisms. For instance, we demonstrate that any coherent group action G < Horneo(+) (R) that produces a nonamenable equivalence relation with respect to the Lebesgue measure satisfies that the underlying group does not embed into Thompson's group F. This includes all known examples of nonamenable groups that do not contain non abelian free subgroups and act faithfully on the real line by homeomorphisms. We also establish that the Brown-Stein-Thompson groups F(2, pi, horizontal ellipsis ,p(n)) for n >= 1 and p(1), horizontal ellipsis ,p(n) distinct odd primes, do not embed into Thompson's group F. This answers a question recently raised by C. Bleak, M. Brin and J. Moore.

We show that for a large class C of finitely generated groups of orientation preserving homeomorphisms of the real line, the following holds: Given a group G of rank k in C, there is a sequence of k-markings (G,S-n), n is an element of N whose limit in the space of marked groups is the free group of rank k with the standard marking. The class we consider consists of groups that admit actions satisfying mild dynamical conditions and a certain "self-similarity" type hypothesis. Examples include Thompson's group F, Higman-Thompson groups, Stein-Thompson groups, various Bieri-Strebel groups, the golden ratio Thompson group, and finitely presented nonamenable groups of piecewise projective homeomorphisms. For the case of Thompson's group F we provide a new and considerably simpler proof of this fact proved by Brin in [4]. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2020