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Person# Yu Yu

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Ginevra Favole, Yu Yu, Cheng Zhao

Context. We present a novel approach to the construction of mock galaxy catalogues for large-scale structure analysis based on the distribution of dark matter halos obtained with effective bias models at the field level. Aims. We aim to produce mock galaxy catalogues capable of generating accurate covariance matrices for a number of cosmological probes that are expected to be measured in current and forthcoming galaxy redshift surveys (e.g. two- and three-point statistics). The construction of the catalogues shown in this paper is part of a mock-comparison project within the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) collaboration. Methods. We use the bias assignment method (BAM) to model the statistics of halo distribution through a learning algorithm using a few detailed N-body simulations, and approximated gravity solvers based on Lagrangian perturbation theory. We introduce cosmic-web-dependent corrections to modelling redshift-space distortions at the N-body level - both in the halo and galaxy distributions -, as well as a multi-scale approach for accurate assignment of halo properties. Using specific models of halo occupation distributions to populate halos, we generate galaxy mocks with the expected number density and central-satellite fraction of emission-line galaxies, which are a key target of the DESI experiment. Results. BAM generates mock catalogues with per cent accuracy in a number of summary statistics, such as the abundance, the twoand three-point statistics of halo distributions, both in real and redshift space. In particular, the mock galaxy catalogues display similar to 3%-10% accuracy in the multipoles of the power spectrum up to scales of k similar to 0.4 h(-1)Mpc. We show that covariance matrices of two- and three-point statistics obtained with BAM display a similar structure to the reference simulation. Conclusions. BAM o ffers an efficient way to produce mock halo catalogues with accurate two- and three-point statistics, and is able to generate a variety of multi-tracer catalogues with precise covariance matrices of several cosmological probes. We discuss future developments of the algorithm towards mock production in DESI and other galaxy-redshift surveys.

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Most non-invasive gaze estimation methods regress gaze directions directly from a single face or eye image. However, due to important variabilities in eye shapes and inner eye structures amongst individuals, universal models obtain limited accuracies and their output usually exhibit high variance as well as subject dependent biases. Thus, increasing accuracy is usually done through calibration, allowing gaze predictions for a subject to be mapped to her actual gaze. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach, which works by directly training a differential convolutional neural network to predict gaze differences between two eye input images of the same subject. Then, given a set of subject specific calibration images, we can use the inferred differences to predict the gaze direction of a novel eye sample. The assumption is that by comparing eye images of the same user, annoyance factors (alignment, eyelid closing, illumination perturbations) which usually plague single image prediction methods can be much reduced, allowing better prediction altogether. Furthermore, the differential network itself can be adapted via finetuning to make predictions consistent with the available user reference pairs. Experiments on 3 public datasets validate our approach which constantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods even when using only one calibration sample or those relying on subject specific gaze adaptation.

2020Andrei Variu, Yu Yu, Hanyu Zhang, Cheng Zhao

Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will construct a large and precise three-dimensional map of our Universe. The survey effective volume reaches similar to 20 h(-3) Gpc(3). It is a great challenge to prepare high-resolution simulations with a much larger volume for validating the DESI analysis pipelines. ABACUSSUMMIT is a suite of high-resolution dark-matter-only simulations designed for this purpose, with 200 h(-3) Gpc(3) (10 times DESI volume) for the base cosmology. However, further efforts need to be done to provide a more precise analysis of the data and to cover also other cosmologies. Recently, the CARPool method was proposed to use paired accurate and approximate simulations to achieve high statistical precision with a limited number of high-resolution simulations. Relying on this technique, we propose to use fast quasi-N-body solvers combined with accurate simulations to produce accurate summary statistics. This enables us to obtain 100 times smaller variance than the expected DESI statistical variance at the scales we are interested in, e.g. k < 0.3 h Mpc(-1) for the halo power spectrum. In addition, it can significantly suppress the sample variance of the halo bispectrum. We further generalize the method for other cosmologies with only one realization in ABACUSSUMMIT suite to extend the effective volume similar to 20 times. In summary, our proposed strategy of combining high-fidelity simulations with fast approximate gravity solvers and a series of variance suppression techniques sets the path for a robust cosmological analysis of galaxy survey data.