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Person# Wessel Valkenburg

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Adrien Florio, Daniel Garcia Figueroa, Francisco Torrenti, Wessel Valkenburg

We present a comprehensive discussion on lattice techniques for the simulation of scalar and gauge field dynamics in an expanding universe. After reviewing the continuum formulation of scalar and gauge field interactions in Minkowski and FLRW backgrounds, we introduce the basic tools for the discretization of field theories, including lattice gauge invariant techniques. Following, we discuss and classify numerical algorithms, ranging from methods of O(delta t(2)) accuracy like staggered leapfrog and Verlet integration, to Runge-Kutta methods up to O(delta t(4)) accuracy, and the Yoshida and Gauss-Legendre higher-order integrators, accurate up to O(delta t(10)) We adapt these methods for their use in classical lattice simulations of the non-linear dynamics of scalar and gauge fields in an expanding grid in 3+1 dimensions, including the case of 'self-consistent' expansion sourced by the volume average of the fields' energy and pressure densities. We present lattice formulations of canonical cases of: i) Interacting scalar fields, ii) Abelian U(1) gauge theories, and iii) Non-Abelian SU(2) gauge theories. In all three cases we provide symplectic integrators, with accuracy ranging from O(delta t(2)) up to O(delta t(10)) For each algorithm we provide the form of relevant observables, such as energy density components, field spectra and the Hubble constraint. We note that all our algorithms for gauge theories always respect the Gauss constraint to machine precision, including when 'self-consistent' expansion is considered. As a numerical example we analyze the post-inflationary dynamics of an oscillating inflaton charged under SU(2) x U(1). We note that the present manuscript is meant to be part of the theoretical basis for the code CosmoLattice, a multi-purpose MPI-based package for simulating the non-linear evolution of field theories in an expanding universe, publicly available at http://www.cosrnolattice.net.

2021Alexey Boyarsky, Oleg Ruchayskiy, Wessel Valkenburg

Observations of the redshifted 21-cm signal (in absorption or emission) allow us to peek into the epoch of the "Dark Ages" and the onset of reionization. These data can provide a novel way to learn about the nature of dark matter, in particular, about the formation of small-size dark matter halos. However, the connection between the formation of structures and the 21-cm signal requires knowledge of a stellar to total mass relation, an escape fraction of UV photons, and other parameters that describe star formation and radiation at early times. This baryonic physics depends on the properties of dark matter, and in particular, in warm-dark-matter (WDM) models, star formation may follow a completely different scenario, as compared to the cold-dark-matter case. We use the recent measurements by EDGES [J. D. Bowman, A. E. E. Rogers, R. A. Monsalve, T. J. Mozdzen, and N. Mahesh, An absorption profile centred at 78 megahertz in the sky-averaged spectrum, Nature (London) 555, 67 (2018)1 to demonstrate that when taking the above considerations into account, the robust WDM bounds arc in fact weaker than those given by the Lyman-a forest method and other structure formation bounds. In particular, we show that a resonantly produced 7-keV sterile neutrino dark matter model is consistent with these data. However, a holistic approach to modeling of the WDM universe holds great potential and may, in the future, make 21-cm data our main tool to learn about DM clustering properties.

Adrien Florio, Daniel Garcia Figueroa, Francisco Torrenti, Wessel Valkenburg

This paper describes CosmoGattice, a modern package for lattice simulations of the dynamics of interacting scalar and gauge fields in an expanding universe. CosmoGattice incorporates a series of features that makes it very versatile and powerful: i) it is written in C++ fully exploiting the object oriented programming paradigm, with a modular structure and a clear separation between the physics and the technical details, ii) it is MPI-based and uses a discrete Fourier transform parallelized in multiple spatial dimensions, which makes it specially appropriate for probing scenarios with well -separated scales, running very high resolution simulations, or simply very long ones, iii) it introduces its own symbolic language, defining field variables and operations over them, so that one can introduce differential equations and operators in a manner as close as possible to the continuum, iv) it includes a library of numerical algorithms, ranging from O(delta t(2)) to O(delta t(10)) methods, suitable for simulating global and gauge theories in an expanding grid, including the case of 'self-consistent' expansion sourced by the fields themselves. Relevant observables are provided for each algorithm (e.g. energy densities, field spectra, lattice snapshots) and we note that, remarkably, all our algorithms for gauge theories (Abelian or non-Abelian) always respect the Gauss constraint to machine precision. Program summary Program Title:: CosmoGattice CPC Library link to program files: https://doi .org /10 .17632 /44vr5xssc6 .1 Developer's repository link: http://github .com /cosmolattice /cosmolattice Licensing provisions: MIT Programming language: C++, MPI Nature of problem: The phenomenology of high energy physics in the early universe is typically characterized by non-linear dynamics, which cannot be captured accurately with analytical techniques. In order to fully understand the non-linearities developed in a given scenario, one needs to carry out lattice simulations. A number of public packages for lattice simulations have appeared over the years, but most of them are only capable of simulating scalar fields. However, realistic models of particle physics do contain other kind of field species, such as (Abelian or non-Abelian) gauge fields, whose non-linear dynamics can also play a relevant role in the early universe. Tensor modes representing gravitational waves are also naturally expected in many scenarios. Solution method: CosmoGattice represents a modern code for lattice simulations of scalar-gauge field theories in an expanding universe. It allows for the simulation of the evolution of interacting (singlet) scalar fields, charged scalar fields under U(1) and/or SU(2) gauge groups, and the corresponding associated Abelian and/or non-Abelian gauge fields. From version 1.1 onward, CosmoGattice also allows to simulate the production of gravitational waves. Simulations can be done either in a flat space-time background, or in a homogeneous and isotropic (spatially flat) expanding FLRW background. CosmoGattice provides symplectic integrators, with accuracy ranging from O (delta t(2)) up to O(delta t(10)), to simuate the non-linear dynamics of the appropriate fields in comoving three-dimensional lattices. The code is parallelized with MPI, and uses a discrete Fourier Transform parallelized in multiple spatial dimensions, which makes it a very powerful code for probing physical problems with well-separated scales. Moreover, the code has been designed as a `platform' to implement any system of dynamical equations suitable for discretization on a lattice. (c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license