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Person# Angelo Esposito

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In physics, an effective field theory is a type of approximation, or effective theory, for an underlying physical theory, such as a quantum field theory or a statistical mechanics model. An effective

Dark matter is a hypothetical form of matter thought to account for approximately 85% of the matter in the universe. Dark matter is called "dark" because it does not appear to interact with the elect

Superfluid helium-4 is the superfluid form of helium-4, an isotope of the element helium. A superfluid is a state of matter in which matter behaves like a fluid with zero viscosity. The substance, whi

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From a study of the line shape of the X(3872), the LHCb collaboration measures a sizeable negative effective range. This cannot be reconciled with a shallow D (D) over bar* bound state hypothesis. Based on Weinberg's compositeness criterion, together with a theorem by Smorodinsky, it follows that the X has to have a compact hidden charm structure interacting with unbound D (D) over bar* pairs via short-distance color forces. This conclusion is strengthened by the general pattern recently emerging from exotic mesons.

Gabriel Francisco Cuomo, Angelo Esposito, Alexander Monin, Riccardo Rattazzi

At finite density, the spontaneous breakdown of an internal non-Abelian symmetry dictates, along with gapless modes, modes whose gap is fixed by the algebra and proportional to the chemical potential: the gapped Goldstones. Generically the gap of these states is comparable to that of other non-universal excitations or to the energy scale where the dynamics is strongly coupled. This makes it non-straightforward to derive a universal effective field theory (EFT) description realizing all the symmetries. Focusing on the illustrative example of a fully broken SU(2) group, we demonstrate that such an EFT can be constructed by carving out around the Goldstones, gapless and gapped, at small 3-momentum. The rules governing the EFT, where the gapless Goldstones are soft while the gapped ones are slow, are those of standard nonrelativistic EFTs, like for instance nonrelativistic QED. In particular, the EFT Lagrangian formally preserves gapped Goldstone number, and processes where such number is not conserved are described inclusively by allowing for imaginary parts in the Wilson coefficients. Thus, while the symmetry is manifestly realized in the EFT, unitarity is not. We comment on the application of our construction to the study of the large charge sector of conformal field theories with non-Abelian symmetries.

We present the analysis of a new signature for light dark matter detection with superfluid He-4: the emission of three phonons. We show that, in a region of mass below the MeV, the kinematics of this process can offer a way to reconstruct the dark matter interaction vertex while providing background rejection via coincidence requirements and directionality. We develop all the theoretical tools to deal with such an observable, and compute the associated differential distributions.

2021