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Person# Max David Veit

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Machine learning

Machine learning (ML) is an umbrella term for solving problems for which development of algorithms by human programmers would be cost-prohibitive, and instead the problems are solved by helping machin

Computational chemistry

Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems. It uses methods of theoretical chemistry, incorporated into computer programs, to

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Michele Ceriotti, Andrea Grisafi, Jigyasa Nigam, Max David Veit

In recent years, we have been witnessing a paradigm shift in computational materials science. In fact, traditional methods, mostly developed in the second half of the XXth century, are being complemented, extended, and sometimes even completely replaced by faster, simpler, and often more accurate approaches. The new approaches, that we collectively label by machine learning, have their origins in the fields of informatics and artificial intelligence, but are making rapid inroads in all other branches of science. With this in mind, this Roadmap article, consisting of multiple contributions from experts across the field, discusses the use of machine learning in materials science, and share perspectives on current and future challenges in problems as diverse as the prediction of materials properties, the construction of force-fields, the development of exchange correlation functionals for density-functional theory, the solution of the many-body problem, and more. In spite of the already numerous and exciting success stories, we are just at the beginning of a long path that will reshape materials science for the many challenges of the XXIth century.

Michele Ceriotti, Guillaume André Jean Fraux, Alexander Jan Goscinski, Till Junge, Félix Benedito Clément Musil, Max David Veit, Michael John Willatt

Physically motivated and mathematically robust atom-centered representations of molecular structures are key to the success of modern atomistic machine learning. They lie at the foundation of a wide range of methods to predict the properties of both materials and molecules and to explore and visualize their chemical structures and compositions. Recently, it has become clear that many of the most effective representations share a fundamental formal connection. They can all be expressed as a discretization of n-body correlation functions of the local atom density, suggesting the opportunity of standardizing and, more importantly, optimizing their evaluation. We present an implementation, named librascal, whose modular design lends itself both to developing refinements to the density-based formalism and to rapid prototyping for new developments of rotationally equivariant atomistic representations. As an example, we discuss smooth overlap of atomic position (SOAP) features, perhaps the most widely used member of this family of representations, to show how the expansion of the local density can be optimized for any choice of radial basis sets. We discuss the representation in the context of a kernel ridge regression model, commonly used with SOAP features, and analyze how the computational effort scales for each of the individual steps of the calculation. By applying data reduction techniques in feature space, we show how to reduce the total computational cost by a factor of up to 4 without affecting the model’s symmetry properties and without significantly impacting its accuracy.

2021Michele Ceriotti, Max David Veit, David Mark Wilkins

The molecular dipole moment (mu) is a central quantity in chemistry. It is essential in predicting infrared and sum-frequency generation spectra as well as induction and long-range electrostatic interactions. Furthermore, it can be extracted directly-via the ground state electron density-from high-level quantum mechanical calculations, making it an ideal target for machine learning (ML). In this work, we choose to represent this quantity with a physically inspired ML model that captures two distinct physical effects: local atomic polarization is captured within the symmetry-adapted Gaussian process regression framework which assigns a (vector) dipole moment to each atom, while the movement of charge across the entire molecule is captured by assigning a partial (scalar) charge to each atom. The resulting "MuML" models are fitted together to reproduce molecular mu computed using high-level coupled-cluster theory and density functional theory (DFT) on the QM7b dataset, achieving more accurate results due to the physics-based combination of these complementary terms. The combined model shows excellent transferability when applied to a showcase dataset of larger and more complex molecules, approaching the accuracy of DFT at a small fraction of the computational cost. We also demonstrate that the uncertainty in the predictions can be estimated reliably using a calibrated committee model. The ultimate performance of the models-and the optimal weighting of their combination-depends, however, on the details of the system at hand, with the scalar model being clearly superior when describing large molecules whose dipole is almost entirely generated by charge separation. These observations point to the importance of simultaneously accounting for the local and non-local effects that contribute to mu; furthermore, they define a challenging task to benchmark future models, particularly those aimed at the description of condensed phases. Published under license by AIP Publishing.