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Publication# On the use of shock-capturing schemes for large-eddy simulation

Abstract

"Numerical simulations of freely decaying isotropic fluid turbulence were performed at various Mach numbers (from 0.2 to 1.0) using known shock-capturing Euler schemes (Jameson, TVD-MUSCL, ENO) often employed for aeronautical applications. The objective of these calculations was to evaluate the relevance of the use of such schemes in the large-eddy simulation (LES) context, The potential of the monotone integrated large-eddy simulation (MILES) approach was investigated by carrying out computations without viscous diffusion terms. Although some known physical trends were respected, it is found that the small scales of the simulated flow suffer from high numerical damping. In a quasi-incompressible case, this numerical dissipation is tentatively interpreted in terms of turbulent dissipation, yielding the evaluation of equivalent Taylor micro-scales, The Reynolds numbers based on these are found between 30 and 40, depending on the scheme and resolution (up to 128(3)). The numerical dissipation is also interpreted in terms of subgrid-scale dissipation in a LES context, yielding equivalent Smagorinsky ""constants"" which do not level off with time and which remain larger than the commonly accepted values of the classical Smagorinsky constant. On the grounds of tests with either the Smagorinsky or a dynamic model, the addition of explicit subgrid-scale (SGS) models to shock-capturing Euler codes is not recommended. (C) 1999 Academic Press."

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Related concepts

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Related concepts (10)

Large eddy simulation

Large eddy simulation (LES) is a mathematical model for turbulence used in computational fluid dynamics. It was initially proposed in 1963 by Joseph Smagorinsky to simulate atmospheric air currents,

Direct numerical simulation

A direct numerical simulation (DNS) is a simulation in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in which the Navier–Stokes equations are numerically solved without any turbulence model. This means that the

Reynolds number

In fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number (Re) is a dimensionless quantity that helps predict fluid flow patterns in different situations by measuring the ratio between inertial and viscous force

Related publications (24)

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Large-eddy simulation (LES) is a very promising technique for the numerical computation of unsteady turbulent flows, and seems to be the perfect tool to simulate the compressible air flow around a high-speed train in a tunnel, providing unsteady results for aerodynamic and aeroacoustic analysis. To look into this possible future application of LES, two major lines of investigation are pursued in this thesis: first, the study of the effective ability of shock-capturing schemes to predict fundamental turbulent phenomena; second, the analysis of the aerodynamic phenomena induced by a high-speed train in a tunnel. The numerical simulation of compressible flows requires the use of shock-capturing schemes. These schemes can be relatively dissipative and mask the subgrid-scale contribution introduced in a large-eddy simulation to account for the unresolved turbulence scales. To estimate their effective dissipation and their ability to resolve turbulence phenomena, shock-capturing schemes widely used for aeronautical applications, from second- to fifth-order space accuracy, are employed here for simulating well-known fundamental flows in subsonic and supersonic regimes. Direct and large-eddy numerical simulations are undertaken for the inviscid and viscous Taylor-Green vortex decay problem, the freely decaying homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, and the fully developed channel flow. For all the turbulent flows investigated, several turbulence statistics are computed and the numerical dissipation of the schemes tested is interpreted in terms of subgrid-scale dissipation in a LES context, yielding an equivalent Smagorinsky or dynamic coefficient. This coefficient is for all schemes of the same order of magnitude as the commonly accepted values in LES for the subgrid-scale term. On the grounds of this analysis and of the comparisons of the turbulence statistics with accurate data obtained in the literature, the addition of explicit subgrid-scale models to the shock-capturing schemes tested is not recommended. It is thus concluded that the use of the LES technique for compressible turbulent flows is not yet suitable for industrial applications. The aerodynamic phenomena generated by a high-speed train travelling in a tunnel are also discussed, their importance on the design of high-speed lies is pointed out, and the analysis tools commonly employed for their study are reviewed. To study numerically the three-dimensional, compressible and turbulent air flow around a high-speed train accelerating in a tunnel, by accounting for the unsteady effects at inlet and outlet boundaries due to the propagation of pressure waves generated at the train departure, new coupling conditions between one-dimensional and three-dimensional domains are developed. These conditions are applied successfully to the numerical simulation of the unsteady wake developing behind two- and three-dimensional vehicles, where the averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the turbulence modelling approach. The influence on the wake of the length of the vehicle tail is also discussed and results of multi-dimensional simulations are compared with one-dimensional data.

The research work reported in the present dissertation is aimed at the analysis of complex physical phenomena involving instabilities and nonlinearities occurring in fluids through state-of-the-art numerical modeling. Solutions of intricate fluid physics problems are devised in two particularly arduous situations: fluid domains with moving boundaries and the high-Reynolds-number regime dominated by nonlinear convective effects. Shear-driven flows of incompressible Newtonian fluids enclosed in cavities of varying geometries are thoroughly investigated in the two following frameworks: transition with a free surface and confined turbulence. The physical system we consider is made of an incompressible Newtonian fluid filling a bounded, or partially bounded cavity. A series of shear-driven flows are easily generated by setting in motion some part of the container boundary. These driven-cavity flows are not only technologically important, they are of great scientific interest because they display almost all physical fluid phenomena that can possibly occur in incompressible flows, and this in the simplest geometrical settings. Thus corner eddies, secondary flows, longitudinal vortices, complex three-dimensional patterns, chaotic particle motions, nonuniqueness, transition, and turbulence all occur naturally and can be studied in the same geometry. This facilitates the comparison of results from experiments, analysis, and computation over the whole range of Reynolds numbers. The flows under consideration are part of a larger class of confined flows driven by linear or angular momentum gradients. This dissertation reports a detailed study of a novel numerical method developed for the simulation of an unsteady free-surface flow in three-space-dimensions. This method relies on a moving-grid technique to solve the Navier-Stokes equations expressed in the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) kinematics and discretized by the spectral element method. A comprehensive analysis of the continuous and discretized formulations of the general problem in the ALE frame, with nonlinear, non-homogeneous and unsteady boundary conditions is presented. In this dissertation, we first consider in the internal turbulent flow of a fluid enclosed in a bounded cubical cavity driven by the constant translation of its lid. The solution of this flow relied on large-eddy simulations, which served to improve our physical understanding of this complex flow dynamics. Subsequently, a novel subgrid model based on approximate deconvolution methods coupled with a dynamic mixed scale model was devised. The large-eddy simulation of the lid-driven cubical cavity flow based on this novel subgrid model has shown improvements over traditional subgrid-viscosity type of models. Finally a new interpretation of approximate deconvolution models when used with implicit filtering as a way to approximate the projective grid filter was given. This led to the introduction of the grid filter models. Through the use of a newly-developed method of numerical simulation, in this dissertation we solve unsteady flows with a flat and moving free-surface in the transitional regime. These flows are the incompressible flow of a viscous fluid enclosed in a cylindrical container with an open top surface and driven by the steady rotation of the bottom wall. New flow states are investigated based on the fully three-dimensional solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for these free-surface cylindrical swirling flows, without resorting to any symmetry properties unlike all other results available in the literature. To our knowledge, this study delivers the most general available results for this free-surface problem due to its original mathematical treatment. This second part of the dissertation is a basic research task directed at increasing our understanding of the influence of the presence of a free surface on the intricate transitional flow dynamics of shear-driven flows.

Charles Vivant Ignacio Meneveau, Marc Parlange

A scale-dependent dynamic subgrid model based on Lagrangian time averaging is proposed and tested in large eddy simulations sLESd of high-Reynolds number boundary layer flows over homogeneous and heterogeneous rough surfaces. The model is based on the Lagrangian dynamic Smagorinsky model in which required averages are accumulated in time, following fluid trajectories of the resolved velocity field. The model allows for scale dependence of the coefficient by including a second test-filtering operation to determine how the coefficient changes as a function of scale. The model also uses the empirical observation that when scale dependence occurs ssuch as when the filter scale approaches the limits of the inertial ranged, the classic dynamic model yields the coefficient value appropriate for the test-filter scale. Validation tests in LES of high Reynolds number, rough wall, boundary layer flow are performed at various resolutions. Results are compared with other eddy-viscosity subgrid-scale models. Unlike the Smagorinsky–Lilly model with wall-damping swhich is overdissipatived or the scale-invariant dynamic model swhich is underdissipatived, the scale-dependent Lagrangian dynamic model is shown to have good dissipation characteristics. The model is also tested against detailed atmospheric boundary layer data that include measurements of the response of the flow to abrupt transitions in wall roughness. For such flows over variable surfaces, the plane-averaged version of the dynamic model is not appropriate and the Lagrangian averaging is desirable. The simulated wall stress overshoot and relaxation after a jump in surface roughness and the velocity profiles at several downstream distances from the jump are compared to the experimental data. Results show that the dynamic Smagorinsky coefficient close to the wall is very sensitive to the underlying local surface roughness, thus justifying the use of the Lagrangian formulation. In addition, the Lagrangian formulation reproduces experimental data more accurately than the planar-averaged formulation in simulations over heterogeneous rough walls.

2005