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Publication# Phenomenology of 10(32) dark sectors

Abstract

We postulate an exact permutation symmetry acting on 10(32) standard model copies as the largest possible symmetry extension of the standard model. This setup automatically lowers the fundamental gravity cutoff down to TeV, and thus, accounts for the quantum stability of the weak scale. We study the phenomenology of this framework and show that below TeV energies the copies are well hidden, obeying all the existing observational bounds. Nevertheless, we identify a potential low energy window into the hidden world, the oscillation of the neutron into its dark copies. At the same time, proton decay can be suppressed by gauging the diagonal baryon number of the different copies. This framework offers an alternative approach to several particle physics questions. For example, we suggest a novel mechanism for generating naturally small neutrino masses that are suppressed by the number of neutrino species. The mirror copies of the standard model naturally house dark matter candidates. The general experimentally observable prediction of this scenario is an emergence of strong gravitational effects at the LHC. The low energy permutation symmetry powerfully constrains the form of this new gravitational physics and allows to make observational predictions, such as, production of micro black holes with very peculiar properties.

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In theories with a large number N of particle species, black hole physics imposes an upper bound on the mass of the species equal to M-Planck/root N. This bound suggests a novel solution to the hierarchy problem in which there are N approximate to 10(32) gravitationally coupled species, for example 10(32) copies of the standard model. The black hole bound forces them to be at the weak scale, hence providing a stable hierarchy. We present various arguments, that in such theories the effective gravitational cutoff is reduced to Lambda(G)approximate to M-Planck/root N and a new description is needed around this scale. In particular, black holes smaller than Lambda(-1)(G) are already no longer semiclassical. The nature of the completion is model dependent. One natural possibility is that Lambda(G) is the quantum gravity scale. We provide evidence that within this type of scenarios, contrary to the standard intuition, micro-black-holes have a (slowly fading) memory of the species of origin. Consequently, the black holes produced at LHC will predominantly decay into the standard model particles, and negligibly into the other species.

2008Currently, the best theoretical description of fundamental matter and its gravitational interaction is given by the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics and Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR). These theories contain a number of seemingly unrelated scales. While Newton's gravitational constant and the mass of the Higgs boson are parameters in the classical action, the masses of other elementary particles are due to the electroweak symmetry breaking. Yet other scales, like ΛQCD associated to the strong interaction, only appear after the quantization of the theory. We reevaluate the idea that the fundamental theory of nature may contain no fixed scales and that all observed scales could have a common origin in the spontaneous break-down of exact scale invariance. To this end, we consider a few minimal scale-invariant extensions of GR and the SM, focusing especially on their cosmological phenomenology. In the simplest considered model, scale invariance is achieved through the introduction of a dilaton field. We find that for a large class of potentials, scale invariance is spontaneously broken, leading to induced scales at the classical level. The dilaton is exactly massless and practically decouples from all SM fields. The dynamical break-down of scale invariance automatically provides a mechanism for inflation. Despite exact scale invariance, the theory generally contains a cosmological constant, or, put in other words, flat spacetime need not be a solution. We next replace standard gravity by Unimodular Gravity (UG). This results in the appearance of an arbitrary integration constant in the equations of motion, inducing a run-away potential for the dilaton. As a consequence, the dilaton can play the role of a dynamical dark-energy component. The cosmological phenomenology of the model combining scale invariance and unimodular gravity is studied in detail. We find that the equation of state of the dilaton condensate has to be very close to the one of a cosmological constant. If the spacetime symmetry group of the gravitational action is reduced from the group of all diffeomorphisms (Diff) to the subgroup of transverse diffeomorphisms (TDiff), the metric in general contains a propagating scalar degree of freedom. We show that the replacement of Diff by TDiff makes it possible to construct a scale-invariant theory of gravity and particle physics in which the dilaton appears as a part of the metric. We find the conditions under which such a theory is a viable description of particle physics and in particular reproduces the SM phenomenology. The minimal theory with scale invariance and UG is found to be a particular case of a theory with scale and TDiff invariance. Moreover, cosmological solutions in models based on scale and TDiff invariance turn out to generically be similar to the solutions of the model with UG. In usual quantum field theories, scale invariance is anomalous. This might suggest that results based on classical scale invariance are necessarily spoiled by quantum corrections. We show that this conclusion is not true. Namely, we propose a new renormalization scheme which allows to construct a class of quantum field theories that are scale-invariant to all orders of perturbation theory and where the scale symmetry is spontaneously broken. In this type of theory, all scales, including those related to dimensional transmutation, like ΛQCD, appear as a consequence of the spontaneous break-down of the scale symmetry. The proposed theories are not renormalizable. Nonetheless, they are valid effective theories below a field-dependent cut-off scale. If the scale-invariant renormalization scheme is applied to the presented minimal scale-invariant extensions of GR and the SM, the goal of having a common origin of all scales, spontaneous breaking of scale invariance, is achieved.

Muhammad Ahmad, Liupan An, Georgios Anagnostou, Konstantin Androsov, Alexandre Aubin, Aurelio Bay, Marc-Olivier Bettler, Frédéric Blanc, Roberto Castello, Yixing Chen, Tian Cheng, Peter Clarke, Victor Coco, Giuseppe Codispoti, Greig Alan Cowan, João Miguel das Neves Duarte, Adam Davis, Michel De Cian, Alessandro Degano, Charles Dietz, Hans Dijkstra, Milos Dordevic, Mirco Dorigo, Frédéric Guillaume Dupertuis, Paolo Durante, Dipanwita Dutta, Matthias Finger, Francesco Fiori, Christoph Frei, Martin George Friedl, Sebastiana Gianì, Elena Graverini, Ruchi Gupta, Guido Haefeli, Csaba Hajdu, Xiaoxue Han, Pierre Jaton, Alexis Kalogeropoulos, Chitsanu Khurewathanakul, Joo Yeon Kim, Donghyun Kim, Ji Hyun Kim, Doohyun Kim, Ilya Komarov, Ajay Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar, Ekaterina Kuznetsova, Ho Ling Li, Yiming Li, Hao Liu, Shuai Liu, Werner Lustermann, Alessandro Mapelli, Pietro Marino, Matteo Marone, Maurizio Martinelli, Bastien Luca Muster, Tatsuya Nakada, Matthew Needham, Niko Neufeld, Ioannis Papadopoulos, Luca Pescatore, Vladimir Petrov, Cédric Potterat, Jessica Prisciandaro, Quentin Python, Barinjaka Rakotomiaramanana, Gerhard Raven, Federico Leo Redi, Andrea Rizzi, Paolo Ronchese, Julien Rouvinet, Olivier Schneider, Sourav Sen, Varun Sharma, Ashish Sharma, Lesya Shchutska, Muhammad Shoaib, Gurpreet Singh, Jan Steggemann, Liang Sun, Wei Sun, Frédéric Teubert, Mark Tobin, Minh Tâm Tran, Andromachi Tsirou, Joao Varela, Horst Vogel, Qian Wang, Rui Wang, Zheng Wang, Jian Wang, Matthias Weber, Jean Wicht, Matthias Wolf, Zhirui Xu, Yong Yang, Kai Yi, Lei Zhang, Yi Zhang

The standard model of particle physics describes the fundamental particles and their interactions via the strong, electromagnetic and weak forces. It provides precise predictions for measurable quantities that can be tested experimentally. The probabilities, or branching fractions, of the strange B meson (B-s(0)) and the B-0 meson decaying into two oppositely charged muons (mu(+) and mu(-)) are especially interesting because of their sensitivity to theories that extend the standard model. The standard model predicts that the B-s(0)->mu(+)mu(-) and B-0 ->mu(+)mu(-) decays are very rare, with about four of the former occurring for every billion B-s(0) mesons produced, and one of the latter occurring for every ten billion B-0 mesons(1). A difference in the observed branching fractions with respect to the predictions of the standard model would provide a direction in which the standard model should be extended. Before the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN2 started operating, no evidence for either decay mode had been found. Upper limits on the branching fractions were an order of magnitude above the standard model predictions. The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) and LHCb(Large Hadron Collider beauty) collaborations have performed a joint analysis of the data from proton-proton collisions that they collected in 2011 at a centre-of-mass energy of seven teraelectronvolts and in 2012 at eight teraelectronvolts. Here we report the first observation of the B-s(0)->mu(+)mu(-) decay, with a statistical significance exceeding six standard deviations, and the best measurement so far of its branching fraction. Furthermore, we obtained evidence for the B-0 ->mu(+)mu(-) decay with a statistical significance of three standard deviations. Both measurements are statistically compatible with standard model predictions and allow stringent constraints to be placed on theories beyond the standard model. The LHC experiments will resume taking data in 2015, recording proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 teraelectronvolts, which will approximately double the production rates of B-s(0) and B-0 mesons and lead to further improvements in the precision of these crucial tests of the standard model.