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Publication# Lagrange Equations Coupled to a Thermal Equation: Mechanics as Consequence of Thermodynamics

Abstract

Following the analytic approach to thermodynamics developed by Stuckelberg, we study the evolution equations of a closed thermodynamic system consisting of point particles in a fluid. We obtain a system of coupled differential equations describing the mechanical and the thermal evolution of the system. The coupling between these evolution equations is due to the action of a viscous friction term. Finally, we apply our coupled evolution equations to study the thermodynamics of an isolated system consisting of identical point particles interacting through a harmonic potential.

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System

A system is a group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its

Point particle

A point particle (ideal particle or point-like particle, often spelled pointlike particle) is an idealization of particles heavily used in physics. Its defining feature is that it lacks spatial exte

Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of matter and radiation. The behavior of these qua

Granular materials are large sets of macroscopic particles that interact solely via contact forces. The static behavior depends on the contact network and on the surface friction forces between grains; when they are set in motion (typically by vibrations) their dynamics is dominated by inelastic collisions. For these reasons granular media show an extremely rich phenomenology, ranging from fluid-like properties (if strongly vibrated), to "jamming", glassy, behavior (if weakly vibrated), to aging and hysteretical phenomena observed when they become trapped in frozen, amorphous states. The objective of this work is to study these states and transitions, and to characterize the analogies found between the dynamic behavior of vibrated granular media and the glass transition observed in thermal glass-formers. These analogies justify the interest in granular materials, because granular media can be seen as simplified model systems useful in the study of out of equilibrium thermodynamics, and, in general, to the larger framework known as "complexity". The granular materials considered here are composed of spheric, polished glass spheres. Since the surface state plays an important role in the grain-grain interaction, some measurements were also performed with acid etched beads, having different surface roughness. The samples are vertically vibrated to achieve vibrofluidization. Different kinds of vibration are used, to highlight different properties of the system. We first consider the transition between the fluid and the subcooled glassy phase, using different experimental techniques. The most important one is a torsion oscillator, that interacts with the granular media via immersed probes. The torsion oscillator can be used in forced mode. A torque is applied on the probe, and we measure the mechanical response function (complex susceptibility). In general, a relaxation is found and it is interpreted as the signature of the irreversible energy loss (damping) in granular collisions. This relaxation has an intrinsic time scale, and systematic analysis of it shows that a clear parallel can be traced to the behavior of "strong" glasses. In particular, it is found that (i) the relaxation time is a function of a unified control parameter, proportional to the square root of the average vibration, and phenomenologically equivalent to an effective temperature; (ii) the functional form with which the relaxation times approach the final "frozen" state has an Arrhenius, or Vögel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) behavior. The same torsion oscillator is employed in free mode. In this case, no external torque is applied, and the probe moves adapting its position under the effect of the continuous rearrangements in the sample. The system is studied by computing the power spectral density of the (angular position) time series. The resulting spectra represent a "configurational noise" as the system randomly hops from one configuration to the following. This allows to define, using a completely different approach, the same intrinsic time scale observed in forced mode measurements. The comparison of the two techniques allows to obtain a more complete and detailed picture of the dynamics in the jamming region. From this comparison, it was inferred that the system is also influenced by an effective vibration frequency, and that the relaxation time has indeed a non-Arrhenius behavior as a function of a control parameter defined as as = √ Γ/ωs. A model was developed combining rheological observations to a statistic approach describing extremal phenomena. This model justifies the appearance of both the control parameter and the VFT evolution of the relaxation. Furthermore, the model is predictive and exposes the effect of a few other rheologic properties of granular system. The effect of surface roughness are considered, showing that the static and dynamic surface friction coefficients are well described by the model. A second relevant part of this work is devoted to an explicit verification that macroscopic probes act as Brownian objects. This fact is often used to interpret experimental data (also in the present work) and to propose theoretical model. However, no explicit evidence has ever been discussed. This is hard to do, using a constrained system such as the torsion oscillator, because the restoring coefficient influences the dynamics of diffusion. To overcome the problem we built a different apparatus, called "Brownian motor", where the probes are mounted on ball bearings, so that they are free to turn without constraint. The properties of the time series of the position of the free turning probe and of the torsionally constrained oscillator can finally be analyzed and compared with simple simulations. The data show an overall diffusion-like behavior, that is influenced by the presence of constraints. Using fractal analysis we estimate the diffusion, or Hurst exponent. This allows to verify that a "macroscopic" object (the probe) immersed in the "microscopic" granular medium indeed behaves as a Brownian object, and that its dynamics can be studied in detail, showing that it undergoes anomalous diffusion. This work is concluded with a discussion on a few possible developments. The most promising idea is a novel approach to the study of the geometrical properties of the contact network of granular assemblies, that is responsible for many of the properties of the granular sample. By using Magnetic Resonance Imaging, the static 3-D structure of granular media can be reconstructed with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and ease of reproducibility. From the spatial information we can extract all the properties of static granular media: the compaction factor, the grain-grain correlation function, the free volume and other observables. Systematic studies could allow experimental confirmations of the many theoretical models that have been proposed in the last years and that still lack a thorough comparison with experiments. This idea does not conclude the perspectives of this work, that are vast and intriguing. A few promising subjects are reviewed more into detail in the corresponding Perspective section. To name a few we cite: measurements of induced aging in non-vibrated samples, the Brownian motor, stick and slip phenomena and their comparison with earthquakes.

The exploration of open quantum many-body systems -systems of microscopic size exhibiting quantum coherence and interacting with their surrounding- has emerged as a key research area over the last years. The recent advances in controlling and preserving quantum coherence at the level of a single particle, developed in a wide variety of physical platforms, have been a major driving force in this field. The driven dissipative nature is a common characteristic of a wide class of modern experimental platforms in quantum science and technology, such as photonic systems, ultracold atoms, optomechanical systems, or superconducting circuits. The interplay between the coherent quantum dynamics and dissipation in open quantum systems leads to a wide range of novel out-of-equilibrium behaviours. Among them, the emergence in these systems of dynamical phases with novel broken symmetries, topological phases and the occurrence of dissipative phase transitions are of particular interest. This thesis aims at establishing a theoretical framework to engineer, characterize and control nonclassical states of light in photonic quantum optical networks in different regimes. The emphasis is put on its implementation, in particular with respect to integration and scalability in photonic platforms. In this thesis, we tackle some interesting aspects arising in the study of the dynamics of driven dissipative coupled nonlinear optical resonators. In that context, we consider the dynamics of two coupled nonlinear photonic cavities in the presence of inhomogeneous coherent driving and local dissipations using the Lindblad master equation formalism.We show that this simple open quantum many-body system can be subject to dynamical instabilities. In particular, our analysis shows that this system presents highly nonclassical properties and its dynamics exhibits dissipative Kerr solitons (DKSs), characterized by the robustness of its specific temporal or spatial waveform during propagation.In a second step, our intuition gained from this system composed of only few degrees of freedom is expanded to the study of systems of bigger size. In particular, we study DKSs originating from the parametric gain in Kerr microresonators. While DKSs are usually described using a classical mean-field approach, our work proposes a quantum-mechanical model formulated in terms of the truncated Wigner formalism. This analysis is motivated by the fact that technological implementations push towards the realization of DKSs in miniaturized integrated systems. These are operating at low power, a regime where quantum effects are expected to be relevant. Using the tools provided by the theory of open quantum systems, we propose a detailed investigation of the impact of quantum fluctuations on the spectral and dynamical properties of DKSs. We show that the quantum fluctuations arising from losses engender a finite lifetime to the soliton, and demonstrate that DKSs correspond to a specific class of dissipative time crystals.

We study the electrical conductivity of hot Abelian plasma containing scalar charge carriers in the leading logarithmic order in coupling constant alpha using the Boltzmann kinetic equation. The leading contribution to the collision integral is due to the Moller and Bhabha scattering of scalar particles with a singular cross section in the region of small momentum transfer. Regularizing this singularity by taking into account the hard thermal loop corrections to the propagators of intermediate particles, we derive the second order differential equation which determines the kinetic function. We solve this equation numerically and also use a variational approach in order to find a simple analytical formula for the conductivity. It has the standard parametric dependence on the coupling constant sigma approximate to 2.38T/(alpha log alpha(-1)) with the prefactor taking a somewhat lower value compared to the fermionic case. Finally, we consider the general case of hot Abelian plasma with an arbitrary number of scalar and fermionic particle species and derive the simple analytical formula for its conductivity.

2019