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Publication# Continuation of eigenvalues and invariant pairs for parameterized nonlinear eigenvalue problems

Abstract

Invariant pairs have been proposed as a numerically robust means to represent and compute several eigenvalues along with the corresponding (generalized) eigenvectors for matrix eigenvalue problems that are nonlinear in the eigenvalue parameter. In this work, we consider nonlinear eigenvalue problems that depend on an additional parameter and our interest is to track several eigenvalues as this parameter varies. Based on the concept of invariant pairs, a theoretically sound and reliable numerical continuation procedure is developed. Particular attention is paid to the situation-when the procedure approaches a singularity, that is, when eigenvalues included in the invariant pair collide with other eigenvalues. For the real generic case, it is proven that such a singularity only occurs when two eigenvalues collide on the real axis. It is shown how this situation can be handled numerically by an appropriate expansion of the invariant pair. The viability of our continuation procedure is illustrated by a numerical example.

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In linear algebra, an eigenvector (ˈaɪgənˌvɛktər) or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a nonzero vector that changes at most by a constant factor when that linear transformation is applied to it. The corresponding eigenvalue, often represented by , is the multiplying factor. Geometrically, a transformation matrix rotates, stretches, or shears the vectors it acts upon. The eigenvectors for a linear transformation matrix are the set of vectors that are only stretched, with no rotation or shear.

In computer science, a continuation is an abstract representation of the control state of a computer program. A continuation implements (reifies) the program control state, i.e. the continuation is a data structure that represents the computational process at a given point in the process's execution; the created data structure can be accessed by the programming language, instead of being hidden in the runtime environment. Continuations are useful for encoding other control mechanisms in programming languages such as exceptions, generators, coroutines, and so on.

In functional programming, continuation-passing style (CPS) is a style of programming in which control is passed explicitly in the form of a continuation. This is contrasted with direct style, which is the usual style of programming. Gerald Jay Sussman and Guy L. Steele, Jr. coined the phrase in AI Memo 349 (1975), which sets out the first version of the Scheme programming language. John C. Reynolds gives a detailed account of the numerous discoveries of continuations.

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