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Publication# Geometric, variational discretization of continuum theories

Abstract

This study derives geometric, variational discretization of continuum theories arising in fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), and the dynamics of complex fluids. A central role in these discretizations is played by the geometric formulation of fluid dynamics, which views solutions to the governing equations for perfect fluid flow as geodesics on the group of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of the fluid domain. Inspired by this framework, we construct a finite-dimensional approximation to the diffeomorphism group and its Lie algebra, thereby permitting a variational temporal discretization of geodesics on the spatially discretized diffeomorphism group. The extension to MHD and complex fluid flow is then made through an appeal to the theory of Euler-Poincare systems with advection, which provides a generalization of the variational formulation of ideal fluid flow to fluids with one or more advected parameters. Upon deriving a family of structured integrators for these systems, we test their performance via a numerical implementation of the update schemes on a cartesian grid. Among the hallmarks of these new numerical methods are exact preservation of momenta arising from symmetries, automatic satisfaction of solenoidal constraints on vector fields, good long-term energy behavior, robustness with respect to the spatial and temporal resolution of the discretization, and applicability to irregular meshes. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Annalisa Quaini, Alfio Quarteroni

We address the numerical simulation of fluid-structure interaction problems characterized by a strong added-mass effect. We propose a semi-implicit coupling scheme based on an algebraic fractional-step method. The basic idea of a semi-implicit scheme consists in coupling implicitly the added-mass effect, while the other terms (dissipation, convection and geometrical nonlinearities) are treated explicitly. Thanks to this kind of explicit–implicit splitting, computational costs can be reduced (in comparison to fully implicit coupling algorithms) and the scheme remains stable for a wide range of discretization parameters. In this paper we derive this kind of splitting from the algebraic formulation of the coupled fluid-structure problem (after finite-element space discretization). From our knowledge, it is the first time that algebraic fractional step methods, used thus far only for fluid problems in computational domains with rigid boundaries, are applied to fluid-structure problems. In particular, for the specific semi-implicit method presented in this work, we adapt the Yosida scheme to the case of a coupled fluid-structure problem. This scheme relies on an approximate LU block factorization of the matrix obtained after the discretization in time and space of the fluid-structure system. We analyze the numerical performances of this scheme on 2D fluid-structure simulations performed with a simple 1D structure model.

2007The quantification of uncertainties can be particularly challenging for problems requiring long-time integration as the structure of the random solution might considerably change over time. In this respect, dynamical low-rank approximation (DLRA) is very appealing. It can be seen as a reduced basis method, thus solvable at a relatively low computational cost, in which the solution is expanded as a linear combination of a few deterministic functions with random coefficients. The distinctive feature of the DLRA is that both the deterministic functions and random coefficients are computed on the fly and are free to evolve in time, thus adjusting at each time to the current structure of the random solution. This is achieved by suitably projecting the dynamics onto the tangent space of a manifold consisting of all random functions with a fixed rank. In this thesis, we aim at further analysing and applying the DLR methods to time-dependent problems.Our first work considers the DLRA of random parabolic equations and proposes a class of fully discrete numerical schemes.Similarly to the continuous DLRA, our schemes are shown to satisfy a discrete variational formulation.By exploiting this property, we establish the stability of our schemes: we show that our explicit and semi-implicit versions are conditionally stable under a ``parabolic'' type CFL condition which does not depend on the smallest singular value of the DLR solution; whereas our implicit scheme is unconditionally stable. Moreover, we show that, in certain cases, the semi-implicit scheme can be unconditionally stable if the randomness in the system is sufficiently small. The analysis is supported by numerical results showing the sharpness of the obtained stability conditions. The discrete variational formulation is further applied in our second work, which derives a-priori and a-posteriori error estimates for the discrete DLRA of a random parabolic equation obtained by the three newly-proposed schemes. Under the assumption that the right-hand side of the dynamical system lies in the tangent space up to a small remainder, we show that the solution converges with standard convergence rates w.r.t. the time, spatial, and stochastic discretization parameters, with constants independent of singular values.We follow by presenting a residual-based a-posteriori error estimation for a heat equation with a random forcing term and a random diffusion coefficient which is assumed to depend affinely on a finite number of independent random variables. The a-posteriori error estimate consists of four parts: the finite element method error, the time discretization error, the stochastic collocation error, and the rank truncation error. These estimators are then used to drive an adaptive choice of FE mesh, collocation points, time steps, and time-varying rank.The last part of the thesis examines the idea of applying the DLR method in data assimilation problems, in particular the filtering problem. We propose two new filtering algorithms. They both rely on complementing the DLRA with a Gaussian component. More precisely, the DLR portion captures the non-Gaussian features in an evolving low-dimensional subspace through interacting particles, whereas each particle carries a Gaussian distribution on the whole ambient space. We study the effectiveness of these algorithms on a filtering problem for the Lorenz-96 system.

Claudia Maria Colciago, Simone Deparis, Davide Forti

Several models exist for the simulation of vascular flows; they span from simple circuit models to full three-dimensional ones that take into account detailed features of the blood and of the arterialwall. Eachmodel comeswith both benefits and drawbacks, the main denominator being a compromise between detailed resolution requirements versus computational time. We first present a fluid-structure interaction computationalmodelwhere both the fluid and the structure are three dimensional. In particular, the fluid includes modeling of large eddies by the variationalmultiscalemethod. After time and space discretizations carried out by finite differences and finite elements, respectively, we set up a parallel solver based ondomain decomposition and a FaCSI preconditioner. These simulations allow one to capture details of the flow dynamics and of the structure deformation even in the transitional regime characterizing hemodynamics in the aorta. It takes roughly 10 hours to complete a simulation of one heartbeat with 35 million degrees of freedom on 2048 cores. We then reduce both the model and its numerical complexity. The structural model is simplified to a two-dimensional membrane located at the fluid-structure interface and the fluid computational domain is fixed. For a fixed geometry andmesh, these assumptions allow one to apply proper orthogonal decomposition and generate a space discretization which has only a few dozen degrees of freedom. It is then possible to perform the simulation of one heartbeat on a laptop in less than one second. Themodeling and numerical reduction therefore allows a dramatic reduction of computational time. However, the price to pay comes, on the one hand, in terms of the preparation of a reduced basis specific to the patient and the geometry of the vessel and, on the other hand, with a detriment of certain quantities of interest. For example, when using a finite element discretization with 9 million degrees of freedom, the offline part takes about 12 hours on 720 cores for the example provided in this work; in this case, the flow profiles in the aorta are pretty close to the full three-dimensional