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Publication# Ultra Low Temperature Susceptometer and Magnetometer

Abstract

The first part of this thesis discusses technical details relating to measurements of magnetic properties at ultra low temperatures. The implementation of AC susceptibility at temperatures down to 30 mK is introduced and used as a platform to showcase selected quantum magnets measured during the thesis. Each presented system illustrates a particular strength of AC susceptibility. This is followed by in-depth analysis of the design and implementation of a new solution for a SQUID magnetometer capable of running below 100 mK. The system employs a piezomotor to move the sample inside a dilution fridge, rather than the existing designs, which involve moving the entire dilution fridge. Furthermore, the system is completely modular, allowing for rapid removal from the fridge, and opening the possibility to use it on virtually any commercial dilution refrigerator. The latter part of the thesis presents a comprehensive study of a new family of model magnets, LiHox Er1−x F4, which combines the Ising spins of ferromagnetic LiHoF4 with the XY ones of antiferromagnetic LiErF4. The temperature-doping (T − x) phase diagram has been studied using AC susceptibility, and three key regions investigated in detail using additional neutron scattering experiments and mean-field calculations. The first region, x ≳ 0.6, corresponds to an Ising ferromagnet, where Tc (x) decreases linearly and faster than what mean-field predicts. At T < TC a so-called embedded spin-glass state is observed. The second region, 0.6 ≳ x ≳ 0.3, undergoes a spin-glass transition, where needle-like spin clusters form along the Ising axis below Tg (x) ∼ 0.4 − 0.5 K. Applying a field along the Ising axis at T < 200 mK produces a thermal runaway in the x = 0.50 sample, when the field reaches a value of H = 0.029 ± 0.002 T. The final region, x ≲ 0.3, corresponds to an antiferromagnetically coupled spin-glass, which shows archetypal spin-glass behaviour.

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In my thesis, transport measurements such as resistivity and, more importantly, thermopower S, were used to explore the phase diagram of bad metals. Bad metals are electronically correlated systems whose ground state lies close to a quantum phase transition. By tuning the control parameters, such as temperature (T ), magnetic field (B), hydrostatic pressure (p) or chemical substitution (x), we can induce phase transitions between the various electronic, magnetic and structural phases. Here, the thermopower is presented as a unique tool for probing quantum phase transition because it is a measure of the entropy of conducting electrons. The main part of the thesis is dedicated to the study of Fe-based superconductors (FeSC) discovered in 2008. Their parent compound has an antiferromagnetic (AF) ground state, where the itinerant electrons form a spin-density wave (SDW), a periodic modulation of spin density. This coincides or is preceded by a structural, tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transition. The nesting between the electron and hole Fermi surface is believed to be the driving mechanism for the SDW state. By changing the structural or chemical properties the AF ground state of FeSC is suppressed, giving way to superconductivity (SC). The remaining antiferromagnetic fluctuations above the transition can provide a glue for SC pairing. Here, the analysis of the thermopower S/T of BaFe1−xCoxAs2 (BFCA) in the x-T phase diagram shows the signatures of the spin fluctuation which have a dome-like dependence and follow the trend of superconducting Tc . The logarithmic increase of S/T upon decreasing T is ascribed to the proximity of the spin-density-wave quantum critical point. It can be understood as an increase of entropy due to the incommensurate AF spin fluctuations. We can ascribe the high values of thermopower in BFCA at intermediate- and room-temperatures to the influence of low-T quantum criticality. To probe the response of the electronic system in FeSC to structural changes, we performed measurements under pressure of the parent compound BaFe2As2 (BFA), the SC electron-doped BFCA, and hole-doped Ba1−xKxFe2As2 (BKFA). In the parent compound pressure suppresses the structural/SDW transition, similar to the effect of doping. For doped systems, in order to describe the behavior of thermopower in the high-T range (above 100K) we used a semi-metallic two-band model which was fitted to the data in order to extract the pressure dependence of the band parameters. In both doping cases the effect of pressure was similar, an increase of the band overlap and of the effective number of charge carriers. With this model we can explain the high-T , x and p dependence of thermopower in both electron- and hole-doped BFA. In a structurally simpler Fe-chalcogenide Fe1+yTe1−xSex compound, the excess of Fe has a Kondo-like influence on the charge carriers which dramatically changes the physics of the normal state. To probe the normal state, pressure, doping, magnetic Fe-excess concentration (y) and temperature were used as control parameters. At low-T a characteristic upturn of resistivity (ρmag ) is observed, followed by an increase of thermopower (Smag ), which we identify as the magnetic contribution caused by the spin-flip scattering events. Increasing the y resulted in an increase of ρmag , and a decrease of Smag , which is in agreement with the behavior of canonical Kondo-systems. Pressure suppresses the magnetic contribution to transport, thus increasing the itinerancy of the system. MnSi is another system in which the sensitivity of thermopower to entropy brings new information related to the complex magnetic structure. Pressure was used to drive the system from a helically ordered, canonical Fermi-liquid (FL) phase with T 2-resistivity to the intrinsically disordered, non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) phase above pc with T3/2-dependence. Our contour plot of S/T demonstrated how powerful the thermopower technique is, by reproducing the whole previously established T -p phase diagram. At the phase transition from the magnetically-ordered FL phase to the disordered NFL, the thermopower is dramatically enhanced. We bring useful information about the mysterious partial order (PO) phase inside the NFL phase, previously detected only by neutron scattering. The fluctuating helices scenario can describe the observed increase of entropy/thermopower in the PO phase. At ambient pressure, close to the helical transition of MnSi, a moderate magnetic field can stabilize the skyrmion lattice - the lattice of topological magnetic whirls, vortices. We observe a signature of the skyrmion lattice as a minute drop in thermopower. It is located exactly in the same region of the T − B phase diagram where an increase in magnetoresistance and Hall effect was reported previously. This feature originates from the additional scattering of conducting electrons on magnetic vortices, while the change in S is dominated by the decrease of entropy as the stable skyrmion lattice is formed. Overall, resistivity was used to confirm the established phase diagram, while thermopower, as an interesting and not sufficiently understood technique, was used to probe the sensitive changes of the charge carriers at the Fermi surface. We explored various phases showing how useful thermopower is to probe the entropy of electronic system on the verge of quantum phase transition.

Two objects are entangled when their quantum mechanical wavefunctions cannot be written in a separable product form. Entangling dissimilar quantum objects, or hybridization, has been suggested as a promising route to efficient quantum information processors, but mostly realized on a limited scale. Hybrid nuclear-electronic many-body systems remain a largely unexplored challenge to both experiments and theories. The prototypical transverse-field Ising ferromagnet LiHoF4 is an ideal platform to address this issue. The Ising model is considered as an archetype both for the investigation of quantum criticality and for the evaluation of quantum simulators. The hyperfine coupling strength of a Ho ion is exceptionally large, promoting a strong hybridization or entanglement between the nuclear and electronic moments. The magnetic coupling between the Ho ions that leads to ferromagnetic ordering is predominantly through long-range dipole interactions, while nearest-neighbor exchange interaction is negligibly weak. Applying a transverse field induces a zero temperature quantum phase transition driven by quantum fluctuations. Altogether LiHoF4 represents a unique nuclear-electronic quantum magnet, whose wavefunctions can be readily obtained by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian using the mean-field approximation. In this thesis we develop an experimental setup to probe the entangled nuclear-electronic states in a model transverse-field Ising system LiHoF4. Using magnetic resonance the field and temperature evolution of the nuclear-electronic states are successfully traced across the whole phase diagram. We develop a theoretical framework based on mean-field calculations which provides close agreement with the experimental observations. Having established experimentally that the mean-field wavefunctions are an excellent approximation of the actual wavefunction, we used them to calculate the ground-state entanglement entropy between the electronic and nuclear magnetic moments. We find that the entanglement entropy between the nuclear and electronic moments exhibits a peak at the quantum phase transition. This suggests that the electronic entanglement is encoded onto each nuclear-electronic state. Our results pave the way for new theoretical and experimental investigations of quantum entanglement.

This thesis presents results of studies of novel compounds modeling complex fundamental physics phenomena. Cu2OSO4 is a copper based magnetic Mott Insulator system, where spin half magnetic moments form a new type of lattice. These intrinsically quantum pins are exhibiting atypical magnetic order and spin dynamics. The recent success in the growth of large single crystals of Cu2OSO4 enabled to perform measurements probing its static and fluctuating properties. The peculiarity of this sample is that its atoms are forming layers, with a geometry close to the intensively studied Kagomé lattice, but with a third of its spins replaced by dimers. This quantum magnetism system has been probed in its bulk, by the means of heat capacity and DC-susceptibility measurements, revealing a transition to a magnetically long range ordered state upon cooling, the details of which are revealed by neutron scattering. Single crystal inelastic neutron scattering shed light on the spin-dynamics in the system, with clear spin waves appearing as fluctuations around the peculiar ground state of the system: a 120 degrees spin configuration where the magnetic moment of the spin-dimer causes the sample to be globally ferrimagnetic. The presented results indicate that Cu2OSO4 represents a new type of model lattice with frustrated interactions where interplay between magnetic order, thermal and quantum fluctuations can be explored. The magnetic excitations of the compound can be modeled by a yet-to-be-understood internal effective mean-field that no simple magnetic coupling seems to reproduce. K2Ni2(SO4)3 is another compound that allows for the existence of non-trivial topological phases. This thesis presents results of the study of the unusual magnetic behavior of K2Ni2(SO4)3. No clear sign of well-established magnetic long range order has been observed down to dilution temperatures. Neutron scattering reveals the details of the competition between frustration and fluctuations that prevent order from settling in. Low temperature spin excitations take the form of a continuum at 500 mK, but also of broad, energy independent continua at higher temperatures. Bulk and neutron scattering measurements are put in perspective and linked together with a view to building up a better understanding of how quantum spin liquids can be stabilized in general, and in particular in this model compound. Finally, the last contribution of this thesis to the field of condensed matter physics regards the establishment of a state-of-the-art technique to fit heat capacity and unit cell volume of samples to try and make the extraction of magnetic information from specific heat measurements more robust. This newly-developed technique consists in modeling lattice contributions with better accuracy by using data from multiple experimentally accessible quantities to consolidate the fitting scheme. This method has been cautiously applied to several compounds at the forefront of research in experimental physics.