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Concept# Ising model

Summary

The Ising model (ˈiːzɪŋ) (or Lenz-Ising model or Ising-Lenz model), named after the physicists Ernst Ising and Wilhelm Lenz, is a mathematical model of ferromagnetism in statistical mechanics. The model consists of discrete variables that represent magnetic dipole moments of atomic "spins" that can be in one of two states (+1 or −1). The spins are arranged in a graph, usually a lattice (where the local structure repeats periodically in all directions), allowing each spin to interact with its neighbors. Neighboring spins that agree have a lower energy than those that disagree; the system tends to the lowest energy but heat disturbs this tendency, thus creating the possibility of different structural phases. The model allows the identification of phase transitions as a simplified model of reality. The two-dimensional square-lattice Ising model is one of the simplest statistical models to show a phase transition.
The Ising model was invented by the physicist , who gave it as a problem

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We propose a quantum model interpolating between the fully frustrated spin-1/2 Ising model in a transverse field and a dimer model. This model contains a resonating-valence-bond phase, including a line with an exactly solvable ground state of Rokhsar-Kivelson type. We discuss the phase diagrams of this model on the square and triangular (in terms of the dimer representation) lattices.

2011Critical statistical mechanics and Conformal Field Theory (CFT) are conjecturally connected since the seminal work of Beliavin et al. (Nucl Phys B 241(2):333-380, 1984). Both exhibit exactly solvable structures in two dimensions. A long-standing question (Itoyama and Thacker in Phys Rev Lett 58:1395-1398, 1987) concerns whether there is a direct link between these structures, that is, whether the Virasoro algebra representations of CFT, the distinctive feature of CFT in two dimensions, can be found within lattice models of statistical mechanics. We give a positive answer to this question for the discrete Gaussian free field and for the Ising model, by connecting the structures of discrete complex analysis in the lattice models with the Virasoro symmetry that is expected to describe their scaling limits. This allows for a tight connection of a number of objects from the lattice model world and the field theory one. In particular, our results link the CFT local fields with lattice local fields introduced in Gheissari et al. (Commun Math Phys 367(3):771-833, 2019) and the probabilistic formulation of the lattice model with the continuum correlation functions. Our construction is a decisive step towards establishing the conjectured correspondence between the correlation functions of the CFT fields and those of the lattice local fields. In particular, together with the upcoming (Chelkak et al. in preparation), our construction will complete the picture initiated in Hongler and Smirnov (Acta Math 211:191-225, 2013), Hongler (Conformal invariance of ising model correlations, 2012) and Chelkak et al. (Annals Math 181(3):1087-1138, 2015), where a number of conjectures relating specific Ising lattice fields and CFT correlations were proven.

This thesis is devoted to the study of the local fields in the Ising model. The scaling limit of the critical Ising model is conjecturally described by Conformal Field Theory. The explicit predictions for the building blocks of the continuum theory (spin and energy density) have been rigorously established [HoSm13, CHI15]. We study how the field-theoretic description of these random fields extends beyond the critical regime of the model. Concretely, the thesis consists of two parts:
The first part studies the behaviour of lattice local fields in the critical Ising model. A lattice local field is a function of a finite number of spins at microscopic distances from a given point. We study one-point functions of these fields (in particular, their asymptotics under scaling limit and conformal invariance). Our analysis, based on discrete complex analysis methods, results in explicit computations which are of interest in applications (e.g. [HKV17]).
The second part considers the behaviour of the massive spin field. In the subcritical massive scaling limit regime first considered by Wu, McCoy, Tracy, and Barouch [WMTB76], we show that the correlations of the massive spin field in a bounded domain have a scaling limit. Furthermore, to this end we generalise the notions and methods of discrete complex analysis in the critical case to the massive regime, and give a new derivation of the formula for the two-point correlation in the full plane in terms of a Painlevé III transcendent.