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Publication# Leptogenesis with heavy neutrino flavours: from density matrix to Boltzmann equations

Abstract

Leptogenesis with heavy neutrino flavours is discussed within a density matrix formalism. We write the density matrix equation, describing the generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry, for an arbitrary choice of the right-handed (RH) neutrino masses. For hierarchical RH neutrino masses lying in the fully flavoured regimes, this reduces to multiple-stage Boltzmann equations. In this case we recover and extend results previously derived within a quantum state collapse description. We confirm the generic existence of phantom terms. However, taking into account the effect of gauge interactions, we show that they are washed out at the production with a wash-out rate that is halved compared to that one acting on the total asymmetry. In the N-1-dominated scenario they cancel without contributing to the final baryon asymmetry. In other scenarios they do not in general and they have to be taken into account. We also confirm that there is a (orthogonal) component in the asymmetry produced by the heavier RH neutrinos which completely escapes the washout from the lighter RH neutrinos and show that phantom terms additionally contribute to it. The other (parallel) component is washed out with the usual exponential factor, even for weak washout. Finally, as an illustration, we study the two RH neutrino model in the light of the above findings, showing that phantom terms can contribute to the final asymmetry also in this case.

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Neutrino

A neutrino (njuːˈtriːnoʊ ; denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with spin of 1 /2) that interacts only via the weak interaction and gravity.

Baryon asymmetry

In physical cosmology, the baryon asymmetry problem, also known as the matter asymmetry problem or the matter–antimatter asymmetry problem, is the observed imbalance in baryonic matter (the type of

Asymmetry

Asymmetry is the absence of, or a violation of, symmetry (the property of an object being invariant to a transformation, such as reflection). Symmetry is an important property of both physical and a

Thermal leptogenesis explains the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe in terms of neutrino masses, consistent with neutrino oscillation experiments. We present a full quantum mechanical calculation of the generated lepton asymmetry based on Kadanoff-Baym equations. Origin of the asymmetry is the departure from equilibrium of the statistical propagator of the heavy Majorana neutrino, together with CP violating couplings. The lepton asymmetry is calculated directly in terms of Green's functions without referring to "number densities". Compared to Boltzmann and quantum Boltzmann equations, the crucial difference are memory effects, rapid oscillations much faster than the heavy neutrino equilibration time. These oscillations strongly suppress the generated lepton asymmetry, unless the standard model gauge interactions, which cause thermal damping, are properly taken into account. We find that these damping effects essentially compensate the enhancement due to quantum statistical factors, so that finally the conventional Boltzmann equations again provide rather accurate predictions for the lepton asymmetry. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2011Thermal leptogenesis explains the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe in terms of neutrino masses, consistent with neutrino oscillation experiments. We present a full quantum mechanical calculation of the generated lepton asymmetry based on Kadanoff-Baym equations. Origin of the asymmetry is the departure of the statistical propagator of the heavy Majorana neutrino from the equilibrium propagator, together with CP violating couplings. The lepton asymmetry is calculated directly in terms of Green's functions without referring to "number densities.'' A detailed comparison with Boltzmann equations shows that conventional leptogenesis calculations have an uncertainty of at least 1 order of magnitude. Particularly important is the inclusion of thermal damping rates in the full quantum mechanical calculation.

2010The possibility to explain the baryon asymmetry in the Universe through the leptogenesis mechanism in the context of Adjoint SU(5) is investigated. In this model the neutrino masses are generated through the Type I and Type III seesaw mechanisms, and the field responsible for the Type III seesaw, called rho_3, generates the B-L asymmetry needed to satisfy the observed value of the baryon asymmetry in the Universe. We find that the CP asymmetry originates only from the vertex correction, since the self-energy contribution is not present. When neutrino masses have a normal hierarchy, successful leptogenesis is possible for 10^{11} GeV < M_{\rho_3}^{NH} < 4 10^{14} GeV. When the neutrino hierarchy is inverted, the allowed mass range changes to 2 10^{11} GeV < M_{\rho_3}^{IH} < 5 10^{11} GeV. These constraints make possible to rule out a large part of the parameter space in the theory which was allowed by the unification of gauge interactions and the constraints coming from proton decay.

2008