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Publication# Iterative-Interpolated DFT for Synchrophasor Estimation: A Single Algorithm for P- and M-Class Compliant PMUs

Abstract

We present a single synchrophasor estimation (SE) algorithm that is simultaneously compliant with both P and M phasor measurement unit (PMU) performance classes. The method, called iterative-interpolated discrete Fourier transform (i-IpDFT), iteratively estimates and compensates the effects of the spectral interference produced by both a generic interfering tone, harmonic or interharmonic, and the negative image of the fundamental tone. We define the three-point i-IpDFT technique for cosine and Hanning window functions and we propose a procedure to select the i-IpDFT parameters. We assess the performance of the i-IpDFT with respect to all the operating conditions defined in the IEEE Std. C37.118 for P- and M-class PMUs. We demonstrate that the proposed SE method is simultaneously compliant with all the accuracy requirements of both PMU performance classes.

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Related concepts (12)

Related publications (9)

Phasor measurement unit

A phasor measurement unit (PMU) is a device used to estimate the magnitude and phase angle of an electrical phasor quantity (such as voltage or current) in the electricity grid using a common time source for synchronization. Time synchronization is usually provided by GPS or IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol, which allows synchronized real-time measurements of multiple remote points on the grid. PMUs are capable of capturing samples from a waveform in quick succession and reconstructing the phasor quantity, made up of an angle measurement and a magnitude measurement.

Window function

In signal processing and statistics, a window function (also known as an apodization function or tapering function) is a mathematical function that is zero-valued outside of some chosen interval, normally symmetric around the middle of the interval, usually approaching a maximum in the middle, and usually tapering away from the middle. Mathematically, when another function or waveform/data-sequence is "multiplied" by a window function, the product is also zero-valued outside the interval: all that is left is the part where they overlap, the "view through the window".

Spectral leakage

The Fourier transform of a function of time, s(t), is a complex-valued function of frequency, S(f), often referred to as a frequency spectrum. Any linear time-invariant operation on s(t) produces a new spectrum of the form H(f)•S(f), which changes the relative magnitudes and/or angles (phase) of the non-zero values of S(f). Any other type of operation creates new frequency components that may be referred to as spectral leakage in the broadest sense. Sampling, for instance, produces leakage, which we call aliases of the original spectral component.

Mario Paolone, Cesar Garcia Veloso

The paper proposes a synchropahsor estimation (SE) algorithm that leverages the use of a delayed in-quadrature complex signal to mitigate the self-interference of the fundamental tone. The estimator, which uses a three-point IpDFT combined with a three-cyc ...

2023Mario Paolone, Asja Derviskadic

Low-inertia grids are characterized by high shares of harmonic and inter-harmonic distortion, produced by the inverters that interface non-conventional generation assets to the electrical grid. These interfering tones largely compromise synchrophasor estim ...

2020Mario Paolone, Asja Derviskadic, Guglielmo Frigo

Synchrophasor estimation is typically performed by means of spectral analysis based on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). Traditional DFT approaches, though, suffer from several uncertainty contributions due to the stationarity assumption, spectral leak ...

2018