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Publication# Artificial Neural Network Approach to the Analytic Continuation Problem

Abstract

Inverse problems are encountered in many domains of physics, with analytic continuation of the imaginary Green's function into the real frequency domain being a particularly important example. However, the analytic continuation problem is ill defined and currently no analytic transformation for solving it is known. We present a general framework for building an artificial neural network (ANN) that solves this task with a supervised learning approach. Application of the ANN approach to quantum Monte Carlo calculations and simulated Green's function data demonstrates its high accuracy. By comparing with the commonly used maximum entropy approach, we show that our method can reach the same level of accuracy for low-noise input data, while performing significantly better when the noise strength increases. The computational cost of the proposed neural network approach is reduced by almost three orders of magnitude compared to the maximum entropy method.

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Artificial neural network

Artificial neural networks (ANNs, also shortened to neural networks (NNs) or neural nets) are a branch of machine learning models that are built using principles of neuronal organization discovered by connectionism in the biological neural networks constituting animal brains. An ANN is based on a collection of connected units or nodes called artificial neurons, which loosely model the neurons in a biological brain. Each connection, like the synapses in a biological brain, can transmit a signal to other neurons.

Neural network

A neural network can refer to a neural circuit of biological neurons (sometimes also called a biological neural network), a network of artificial neurons or nodes in the case of an artificial neural network. Artificial neural networks are used for solving artificial intelligence (AI) problems; they model connections of biological neurons as weights between nodes. A positive weight reflects an excitatory connection, while negative values mean inhibitory connections. All inputs are modified by a weight and summed.

Feedforward neural network

A feedforward neural network (FNN) is one of the two broad types of artificial neural network, characterized by direction of the flow of information between its layers. Its flow is uni-directional, meaning that the information in the model flows in only one direction—forward—from the input nodes, through the hidden nodes (if any) and to the output nodes, without any cycles or loops, in contrast to recurrent neural networks, which have a bi-directional flow.

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