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Publication# Asymmetric phase modulation of light with parity-symmetry broken metasurfaces

Abstract

The design of wavefront-shaping devices is conventionally approached using real-frequency modeling. However, since these devices interact with light through radiative channels, they are by default non-Hermitian objects having complex eigenvalues (poles and zeros) that are marked by phase singularities in a complex frequency plane. Here, by using temporal coupled mode theory, we derive analytical expressions allowing to predict the location of these phase singularities in a complex plane and as a result, allowing to control the induced phase modulation of light. In particular, we show that spatial inversion symmetry breaking-implemented herein by controlling the coupling efficiency between input and output radiative channels of two-port components called metasurfaces-lifts the degeneracy of reflection zeros in forward and backward directions, and introduces a complex singularity with a positive imaginary part necessary for a full 2 pi-phase gradient. Our work establishes a general framework to predict and study the response of resonant systems in photonics and metaoptics. (c) 2023 Optica Publishing Group under the terms of the Optica Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Complex number

In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted i, called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation ; every complex number can be expressed in the form , where a and b are real numbers. Because no real number satisfies the above equation, i was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number , a is called the , and b is called the . The set of complex numbers is denoted by either of the symbols or C.

Complex plane

In mathematics, the complex plane is the plane formed by the complex numbers, with a Cartesian coordinate system such that the x-axis, called the real axis, is formed by the real numbers, and the y-axis, called the imaginary axis, is formed by the imaginary numbers. The complex plane allows a geometric interpretation of complex numbers. Under addition, they add like vectors.

Essential singularity

In complex analysis, an essential singularity of a function is a "severe" singularity near which the function exhibits odd behavior. The category essential singularity is a "left-over" or default group of isolated singularities that are especially unmanageable: by definition they fit into neither of the other two categories of singularity that may be dealt with in some manner – removable singularities and poles. In practice some include non-isolated singularities too; those do not have a residue.

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