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Publication# Partial lifting of degeneracy in the J1-J2-J3 Ising antiferromagnet on the kagome lattice

Abstract

Motivated by dipolar-coupled artificial spin systems, we present a theoretical study of the classical J(1)-J(2)-J(3) Ising antiferromagnet on the kagome lattice. We establish the ground-state phase diagram of this model for J(1) > |J(2) |, |J(3) | based on exact results for the ground-state energies. When all the couplings are antiferromagnetic, the model has three macroscopically degenerate ground-state phases, and using tensor networks, we can calculate the entropies of these phases and of their boundaries very accurately. In two cases, the entropy appears to be a fraction of that of the triangular lattice Ising antiferromagnet, and we provide analytical arguments to support this observation. We also notice that, surprisingly enough, the dipolar ground state is not a ground state of the truncated model, but of the model with smaller J(3) interactions, an indication of a very strong competition between low-energy states in this model.

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Ontological neighbourhood

Ground state

The ground state of a quantum-mechanical system is its stationary state of lowest energy; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system. An excited state is any state with energy greater than the ground state. In quantum field theory, the ground state is usually called the vacuum state or the vacuum. If more than one ground state exists, they are said to be degenerate. Many systems have degenerate ground states.

Quantum spin liquid

In condensed matter physics, a quantum spin liquid is a phase of matter that can be formed by interacting quantum spins in certain magnetic materials. Quantum spin liquids (QSL) are generally characterized by their long-range quantum entanglement, fractionalized excitations, and absence of ordinary magnetic order. The quantum spin liquid state was first proposed by physicist Phil Anderson in 1973 as the ground state for a system of spins on a triangular lattice that interact antiferromagnetically with their nearest neighbors, i.

Ising model

The Ising model (ˈiːzɪŋ) (or Lenz-Ising model or Ising-Lenz model), named after the physicists Ernst Ising and Wilhelm Lenz, is a mathematical model of ferromagnetism in statistical mechanics. The model consists of discrete variables that represent magnetic dipole moments of atomic "spins" that can be in one of two states (+1 or −1). The spins are arranged in a graph, usually a lattice (where the local structure repeats periodically in all directions), allowing each spin to interact with its neighbors.

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