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Publication# Non-planarity of Markoff graphs mod p

Abstract

We prove the non-planarity of a family of 3-regular graphs constructed from the solutions to the Markoff equation x2 + y2 + z2 = xyz modulo prime numbers greater than 7. The proof uses Euler characteristic and an enumeration of the short cycles in these graphs. Non-planarity for large primes would follow assuming a spectral gap, which was the original motivation. For primes congruent to 1 modulo 4, or congruent to 1, 2, or 4 modulo 7, explicit constructions give an alternate proof of non-planarity.

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Planar graph

In graph theory, a planar graph is a graph that can be embedded in the plane, i.e., it can be drawn on the plane in such a way that its edges intersect only at their endpoints. In other words, it can be drawn in such a way that no edges cross each other. Such a drawing is called a plane graph or planar embedding of the graph. A plane graph can be defined as a planar graph with a mapping from every node to a point on a plane, and from every edge to a plane curve on that plane, such that the extreme points of each curve are the points mapped from its end nodes, and all curves are disjoint except on their extreme points.

Line graph

In the mathematical discipline of graph theory, the line graph of an undirected graph G is another graph L(G) that represents the adjacencies between edges of G. L(G) is constructed in the following way: for each edge in G, make a vertex in L(G); for every two edges in G that have a vertex in common, make an edge between their corresponding vertices in L(G). The name line graph comes from a paper by although both and used the construction before this.

List of graphs

This partial list of graphs contains definitions of graphs and graph families. For collected definitions of graph theory terms that do not refer to individual graph types, such as vertex and path, see Glossary of graph theory. For links to existing articles about particular kinds of graphs, see . Some of the finite structures considered in graph theory have names, sometimes inspired by the graph's topology, and sometimes after their discoverer.

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