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Publication# Luminosity determination using Z boson production at the CMS experiment

Jian Wang, Matthias Finger, Qian Wang, Yiming Li, Matthias Wolf, Varun Sharma, Yi Zhang, Konstantin Androsov, Jan Steggemann, Xin Chen, Rakesh Chawla, Matteo Galli, Anna Mascellani, João Miguel das Neves Duarte, Tagir Aushev, Tian Cheng, Yixing Chen, Werner Lustermann, Andromachi Tsirou, Alexis Kalogeropoulos, Andrea Rizzi, Ioannis Papadopoulos, Paolo Ronchese, Hua Zhang, Siyuan Wang, Tao Huang, David Vannerom, Michele Bianco, Sebastiana Gianì, Sun Hee Kim, Kun Shi, Abhisek Datta, Federica Legger, Gabriele Grosso, Ji Hyun Kim, Donghyun Kim, Zheng Wang, Sanjeev Kumar, Wei Li, Yong Yang, Geng Chen, Ajay Kumar, Ashish Sharma, Georgios Anagnostou, Joao Varela, Csaba Hajdu, Muhammad Ahmad, Ioannis Evangelou, Milos Dordevic, Meng Xiao, Sourav Sen, Xiao Wang, Kai Yi, Jing Li, Rajat Gupta, Hui Wang, Seungkyu Ha, Long Wang, Pratyush Das, Anton Petrov, Xin Sun, Xin Gao, Valérie Scheurer, Giovanni Mocellin, Muhammad Ansar Iqbal, Lukas Layer

2024

Journal paper

2024

Journal paper

Abstract

The measurement of Z boson production is presented as a method to determine the integrated luminosity of CMS data sets. The analysis uses proton-proton collision data, recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC in 2017 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. Events with Z bosons decaying into a pair ofmuons are selected. The total number of Z bosons produced in a fiducial volume is determined, together with the identification efficiencies and correlations from the same data set, in small intervals of 20 pb(-1) of integrated luminosity, thus facilitating the efficiency and rate measurement as a function of time and instantaneous luminosity. Using the ratio of the efficiency-corrected numbers of Z bosons, the precisely measured integrated luminosity of one data set is used to determine the luminosity of another. For the first time, a full quantitative uncertainty analysis of the use of Z bosons for the integrated luminosity measurement is performed. The uncertainty in the extrapolation between two data sets, recorded in 2017 at low and high instantaneous luminosity, is less than 0.5%. We show that the Z boson rate measurement constitutes a precise method, complementary to traditional methods, with the potential to improve the measurement of the integrated luminosity.

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The Higgs boson, sometimes called the Higgs particle, is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics produced by the quantum excitation of the Higgs field, one of the fields in particle physics theory. In the Standard Model, the Higgs particle is a massive scalar boson with zero spin, even (positive) parity, no electric charge, and no colour charge that couples to (interacts with) mass. It is also very unstable, decaying into other particles almost immediately upon generation.

Luminosity

Luminosity is an absolute measure of radiated electromagnetic power (light), the radiant power emitted by a light-emitting object over time. In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of electromagnetic energy emitted per unit of time by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical objects. In SI units, luminosity is measured in joules per second, or watts. In astronomy, values for luminosity are often given in the terms of the luminosity of the Sun, L⊙.

W and Z bosons

In particle physics, the W and Z bosons are vector bosons that are together known as the weak bosons or more generally as the intermediate vector bosons. These elementary particles mediate the weak interaction; the respective symbols are _W boson+, _W boson-, and _Z boson0. The _W boson+- bosons have either a positive or negative electric charge of 1 elementary charge and are each other's antiparticles. The _Z boson0 boson is electrically neutral and is its own antiparticle. The three particles each have a spin of 1.

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