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Publication# Non-normal forms

2024

EPFL thesis

Abstract

In this thesis, we propose to formally derive amplitude equations governing the weakly nonlinear evolution of non-normal dynamical systems, when they respond to harmonic or stochastic forcing, or to an initial condition. This approach reconciles the non-modal nature of these growth mechanisms and the need for a centre manifold to project the leading-order dynamics. Under the hypothesis of strong non-normality, small operator perturbations suffice to make singular the inverse of the operator which is relevant to the considered problem. The adjective "small" is relative to the choice of an induced norm, under which the operator induces a large input-output amplification. Such operator perturbation can be encompassed in a multiple-scale asymptotic expansion, closed by a standard compatibility condition. The resulting amplitude equations are tested in parallel and non-parallel two-dimensional flows, where they bring insight into the weakly nonlinear mechanisms that modify the gains as we increase the amplitude of the harmonic or stochastic forcing, or that of the initial condition.

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Ontological neighbourhood

In mathematics, the operator norm measures the "size" of certain linear operators by assigning each a real number called its . Formally, it is a norm defined on the space of bounded linear operators between two given normed vector spaces. Informally, the operator norm of a linear map is the maximum factor by which it "lengthens" vectors. Given two normed vector spaces and (over the same base field, either the real numbers or the complex numbers ), a linear map is continuous if and only if there exists a real number such that The norm on the left is the one in and the norm on the right is the one in .

In mathematics, more specifically functional analysis and operator theory, the notion of unbounded operator provides an abstract framework for dealing with differential operators, unbounded observables in quantum mechanics, and other cases. The term "unbounded operator" can be misleading, since "unbounded" should sometimes be understood as "not necessarily bounded"; "operator" should be understood as "linear operator" (as in the case of "bounded operator"); the domain of the operator is a linear subspace, not necessarily the whole space; this linear subspace is not necessarily closed; often (but not always) it is assumed to be dense; in the special case of a bounded operator, still, the domain is usually assumed to be the whole space.

In functional analysis, a branch of mathematics, a compact operator is a linear operator , where are normed vector spaces, with the property that maps bounded subsets of to relatively compact subsets of (subsets with compact closure in ). Such an operator is necessarily a bounded operator, and so continuous. Some authors require that are Banach, but the definition can be extended to more general spaces. Any bounded operator that has finite rank is a compact operator; indeed, the class of compact operators is a natural generalization of the class of finite-rank operators in an infinite-dimensional setting.

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2024