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Publication# Experiments and gyrokinetic simulations of TCV plasmas with negative triangularity in view of DTT operations

Olivier Sauter, Stefano Coda, Justin Richard Ball, Alberto Mariani, Matteo Vallar, Filippo Bagnato

2024

Journal paper

2024

Journal paper

Abstract

Negative triangularity (NT) scenarios in TCV have been compared to positive triangularity (PT) scenarios using the same plasma shapes foreseen for divertor tokamak test tokamak operations. The experiments provided a NT/PT L-mode pair and a PT H-mode with different heating mixes. Regardless of the heating mix, NT L-modes always reached higher values of plasma pressure with respect to PT L-modes with the same power and recovered the central pressure of PT H-mode scenarios heated with up to twice the injected power. The experimental analysis shows that this enhanced performance in NT is due to larger temperature and density gradients close to the edge ( rho t o r = [ 0.8 - 1.0 ] ) and higher values of pressure at the separatrix. Local gyrokinetic simulations agree with the experimental results and are able to catch the effect of shaping alone. Integrated modeling performed with ASTRA-TGLF reproduces reasonably well the PT shot but is not able to fully capture the improvements in the NT shot.

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In mathematics, a triangular matrix is a special kind of square matrix. A square matrix is called if all the entries above the main diagonal are zero. Similarly, a square matrix is called if all the entries below the main diagonal are zero. Because matrix equations with triangular matrices are easier to solve, they are very important in numerical analysis. By the LU decomposition algorithm, an invertible matrix may be written as the product of a lower triangular matrix L and an upper triangular matrix U if and only if all its leading principal minors are non-zero.

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Magnetic confinement fusion is an approach to generate thermonuclear fusion power that uses magnetic fields to confine fusion fuel in the form of a plasma. Magnetic confinement is one of two major branches of fusion energy research, along with inertial confinement fusion. The magnetic approach began in the 1940s and absorbed the majority of subsequent development. Fusion reactions combine light atomic nuclei such as hydrogen to form heavier ones such as helium, producing energy.

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The SMall Aspect Ratio Tokamak (SMART) under commissioning at the University of Seville, Spain, aims to explore confinement properties and possible advantages in confinement for compact/spherical tokamaks operating at negative vs. positive triangularity. T ...