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Publication# From low-rank retractions to dynamical low-rank approximation and back

Abstract

In algorithms for solving optimization problems constrained to a smooth manifold, retractions are a well-established tool to ensure that the iterates stay on the manifold. More recently, it has been demonstrated that retractions are a useful concept for other computational tasks on manifold as well, including interpolation tasks. In this work, we consider the application of retractions to the numerical integration of differential equations on fixed-rank matrix manifolds. This is closely related to dynamical low-rank approximation (DLRA) techniques. In fact, any retraction leads to a numerical integrator and, vice versa, certain DLRA techniques bear a direct relation with retractions. As an example for the latter, we introduce a new retraction, called KLS retraction, that is derived from the so-called unconventional integrator for DLRA. We also illustrate how retractions can be used to recover known DLRA techniques and to design new ones. In particular, this work introduces two novel numerical integration schemes that apply to differential equations on general manifolds: the accelerated forward Euler (AFE) method and the Projected Ralston-Hermite (PRH) method. Both methods build on retractions by using them as a tool for approximating curves on manifolds. The two methods are proven to have local truncation error of order three. Numerical experiments on classical DLRA examples highlight the advantages and shortcomings of these new methods.

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Ontological neighbourhood

Differentiable manifold

In mathematics, a differentiable manifold (also differential manifold) is a type of manifold that is locally similar enough to a vector space to allow one to apply calculus. Any manifold can be described by a collection of charts (atlas). One may then apply ideas from calculus while working within the individual charts, since each chart lies within a vector space to which the usual rules of calculus apply. If the charts are suitably compatible (namely, the transition from one chart to another is differentiable), then computations done in one chart are valid in any other differentiable chart.

Numerical methods for ordinary differential equations

Numerical methods for ordinary differential equations are methods used to find numerical approximations to the solutions of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Their use is also known as "numerical integration", although this term can also refer to the computation of integrals. Many differential equations cannot be solved exactly. For practical purposes, however – such as in engineering – a numeric approximation to the solution is often sufficient. The algorithms studied here can be used to compute such an approximation.

Manifold

In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that locally resembles Euclidean space near each point. More precisely, an -dimensional manifold, or -manifold for short, is a topological space with the property that each point has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to an open subset of -dimensional Euclidean space. One-dimensional manifolds include lines and circles, but not lemniscates. Two-dimensional manifolds are also called surfaces. Examples include the plane, the sphere, and the torus, and also the Klein bottle and real projective plane.

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