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Concept# Manifold

Summary

In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that locally resembles Euclidean space near each point. More precisely, an n-dimensional manifold, or n-manifold for short, is a topological space with the property that each point has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to an open subset of n-dimensional Euclidean space.
One-dimensional manifolds include lines and circles, but not lemniscates. Two-dimensional manifolds are also called surfaces. Examples include the plane, the sphere, and the torus, and also the Klein bottle and real projective plane.
The concept of a manifold is central to many parts of geometry and modern mathematical physics because it allows complicated structures to be described in terms of well-understood topological properties of simpler spaces. Manifolds naturally arise as solution sets of systems of equations and as graphs of functions. The concept has applications in computer-graphics given the need to associate pic

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MATH-322: Introduction to differentiable manifolds

Differentiable manifolds are a certain class of topological spaces which, in a way we will make precise, locally resemble R^n. We introduce the key concepts of this subject, such as vector fields, differential forms, integration of differential forms etc.

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This course is an introduction to the theory of Riemann surfaces. Riemann surfaces naturally appear is mathematics in many different ways: as a result of analytic continuation, as quotients of complex domains under discontinuous group actions, as algebraic curves.

MATH-512: Optimization on manifolds

We develop, analyze and implement numerical algorithms to solve optimization problems of the form: min f(x) where x is a point on a smooth manifold. To this end, we first study differential and Riemannian geometry (with a focus dictated by pragmatic concerns). We also discuss several applications.

Related lectures (74)

A compact Kahler manifold X is shown to be simply connected if its 'symmetric cotangent algebra' is trivial. Conjecturally, such a manifold should even be rationally connected. The relative version is also shown: a proper surjective connected holomorphic map f : X -> S between connected manifolds induces an isomorphism of fundamental groups if its smooth fibres are as above, and if X is Kahler.

An intrinsic approach to Finsler geometry is proposed. A concept of Finsler- Ehresmann manifold, denoted by (M,F,H), is introduced and a generalized Chern connection is built for this manifold. Conformal deformations on this manifold are considered. First, we have an analogous of Chern's theorem: we prove the existence and uniqueness of a generalized Chern connection for the manifold (M,F,H). Similarly, within an essentially koszulian formalism, we present two curvatures associated to this generalized connection, namely a R curvature and a P one. The second result is the deduction of conformal transformations laws for the generalized Chern connection and associated curvatures. The transformation of R seems to have very similar properties as that of the Riemannian curvature while that of P reveals other objects of pure Finslerian nature. Third, we construct the finsler Weyl and Schouten tensors W and S respectively and we study their conformal transformations. Furthermore, we show that for the dimension 3, the horizontal component of W for generalized Berwald manifolds is identically zero. The next result is a theorem of Weyl-Schouten type giving necessary and sufficient conditions for a Finsler-Ehresmann manifold to be conformaly R-flat. We complete this result by exploring the case of dimension 3 for Berwald spaces which gives a result very similar to the Riemannian case. In addition, we announce some necessary conditions to characterize conformal flatness of Finsler-Ehresmann manifolds.

We complete the picture of sharp eigenvalue estimates for the -Laplacian on a compact manifold by providing sharp estimates on the first nonzero eigenvalue of the nonlinear operator when the Ricci curvature is bounded from below by a negative constant. We assume that the boundary of the manifold is convex, and put Neumann boundary conditions on it. The proof is based on a refined gradient comparison technique and a careful analysis of the underlying model spaces.