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Unit# The geometric analysis chair

Chair

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Lie group

In mathematics, a Lie group (pronounced liː ) is a group that is also a differentiable manifold. A manifold is a space that locally resembles Euclidean space, whereas groups define the abstract concept of a binary operation along with the additional properties it must have to be thought of as a "transformation" in the abstract sense, for instance multiplication and the taking of inverses (division), or equivalently, the concept of addition and the taking of inverses (subtraction).

Hamiltonian mechanics

Hamiltonian mechanics emerged in 1833 as a reformulation of Lagrangian mechanics. Introduced by Sir William Rowan Hamilton, Hamiltonian mechanics replaces (generalized) velocities used in Lagrangian mechanics with (generalized) momenta. Both theories provide interpretations of classical mechanics and describe the same physical phenomena. Hamiltonian mechanics has a close relationship with geometry (notably, symplectic geometry and Poisson structures) and serves as a link between classical and quantum mechanics.

Henri Poincaré

Jules Henri Poincaré (UKˈpwæ̃kɑreɪ, ; ɑ̃ʁi pwɛ̃kaʁe; 29 April 1854 - 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science. He is often described as a polymath, and in mathematics as "The Last Universalist", since he excelled in all fields of the discipline as it existed during his lifetime. As a mathematician and physicist, he made many original fundamental contributions to pure and applied mathematics, mathematical physics, and celestial mechanics.

We develop the necessary tools, including a notion of logarithmic derivative for curves in homogeneous spaces, for deriving a general class of equations including Euler-Poincar, equations on Lie groups and homogeneous spaces. Orbit invariants play an important role in this context and we use these invariants to prove global existence and uniqueness results for a class of PDE. This class includes Euler-Poincar, equations that have not yet been considered in the literature as well as integrable equations like Camassa-Holm, Degasperis-Procesi, mu CH and mu DP equations, and the geodesic equations with respect to right-invariant Sobolev metrics on the group of diffeomorphisms of the circle.

This study derives geometric, variational discretization of continuum theories arising in fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), and the dynamics of complex fluids. A central role in these discretizations is played by the geometric formulation of fluid dynamics, which views solutions to the governing equations for perfect fluid flow as geodesics on the group of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of the fluid domain. Inspired by this framework, we construct a finite-dimensional approximation to the diffeomorphism group and its Lie algebra, thereby permitting a variational temporal discretization of geodesics on the spatially discretized diffeomorphism group. The extension to MHD and complex fluid flow is then made through an appeal to the theory of Euler-Poincare systems with advection, which provides a generalization of the variational formulation of ideal fluid flow to fluids with one or more advected parameters. Upon deriving a family of structured integrators for these systems, we test their performance via a numerical implementation of the update schemes on a cartesian grid. Among the hallmarks of these new numerical methods are exact preservation of momenta arising from symmetries, automatic satisfaction of solenoidal constraints on vector fields, good long-term energy behavior, robustness with respect to the spatial and temporal resolution of the discretization, and applicability to irregular meshes. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2011