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Unit# Computer Mathematics and Simulation Science

Laboratory

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Jan Sickmann Hesthaven, Cecilia Pagliantini, Nicolò Ripamonti

This work proposes an adaptive structure-preserving model order reduction method for finite-dimensional parametrized Hamiltonian systems modeling non-dissipative phenomena. To overcome the slowly decaying Kolmogorov width typical of transport problems, the full model is approximated on local reduced spaces that are adapted in time using dynamical low-rank approximation techniques. The reduced dynamics is prescribed by approximating the symplectic projection of the Hamiltonian vector field in the tangent space to the local reduced space. This ensures that the canonical symplectic structure of the Hamiltonian dynamics is preserved during the reduction. In addition, accurate approximations with low-rank reduced solutions are obtained by allowing the dimension of the reduced space to change during the time evolution. Whenever the quality of the reduced solution, assessed via an error indicator, is not satisfactory, the reduced basis is augmented in the parameter direction that is worst approximated by the current basis. Extensive numerical tests involving wave interactions, nonlinear transport problems, and the Vlasov equation demonstrate the superior stability properties and considerable runtime speedups of the proposed method as compared to global and traditional reduced basis approaches.

In this thesis, we propose model order reduction techniques for high-dimensional PDEs that preserve structures of the original problems and develop a closure modeling framework leveraging the Mori-Zwanzig formalism and recurrent neural networks. Since high-fidelity approximations of PDEs often result in a large number of degrees of freedom, the need for iterative evaluations for numerical optimizations and rapid feedback is computationally challenging.The first part of this thesis is devoted to conserving the high-dimensional equation's invariants, symmetries, and structures during the reduction process. Traditional reduction techniques are not guaranteed to yield stable reduced systems, even if the target problem is stable. In the context of fluid flows, the skew-symmetric structure of the problem entails the preservation of the kinetic energy of the system. By preserving the same structure at the level of the reduced model, we obtain enhanced stability, and accuracy and the reduced model acquires physical significance by preserving a surrogate of the energy of the original problem. Next, we focus on Hamiltonian systems, which, being driven by symmetry, are a source of great interest in the reduction community. It is well known that the breaking of these symmetries in the reduced model is accompanied by a blowup of the system energy and flow volume. In this thesis, geometric reduced models for Hamiltonian systems are further developed and combined with the dynamically orthogonal methods, addressing the poor reducibility in time of advection-dominated problems. The reduced solution is expressed as a linear combination of a finite number of modes and coincides with the symplectic projection of the high-fidelity Hamiltonian problem onto the tangent space of the approximating manifold. An error surrogate is used to monitor the approximation ability of the reduced model and make a change in the rank of the approximating system if necessary. The method is further developed through a combination of DEIM and DMD to reduce non-polynomial nonlinearities while preserving the symplectic structure of the problem and applied to the Vlasov-Poisson system.In the second part of the thesis, we consider several data-driven methods to address the poor accuracy in the under-resolved regime for Galerkin reduced models via a closure term. The closure term is developed systematically from the Mori-Zwanzig formalism by introducing projection operators on the spaces of resolved and unresolved scales, thus resulting in an additional memory integral term. The interaction between different scales turns out to be nonlocal in time and dominated by a high-dimensional orthogonal dynamics equation, which cannot be solved precisely and efficiently. Several classical methods in the field of statistical mechanics are used to approximate the memory term, exploiting the finiteness of the memory kernel support. We conclude this thesis by showing through numerical experiments how long short-term memory networks, i.e., machine learning structures characterized by feedback connections, represent a valid tool for approximating the additional memory term.

Projection-based reduced order models (ROM) based on the weak form and the strong form of the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method are proposed and compared for shock-dominated problems. The incorporation of dissipation components of DG in a consistent manner, including the upwinding flux and the localized artificial viscosity model, is employed to enhance stability of the ROM. To ensure efficiency, the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM) is adopted to enable hyper-reduction, for which the upwinding flux is decomposed into the central part and the dissipation part. The maximum local wave speed in the upwinding dissipation part is compressed and approximated using the DEIM approach, and the same strategy is applied to the artificial viscosity. Energy stability is proved with the strong-form-based ROM prior to hyper-reduction for the one-dimensional scalar cases. Eigenvalue spectrum is analyzed to verify and compare the stability properties of the two proposed ROMs. Several benchmark cases are conducted to test the performance of the proposed models. Results show that stable computations with reasonable acceleration for shock-dominated cases can be achieved with the ROM built on the strong form. (C) 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.