Concept

Participatory planning

Résumé
Participatory planning is an urban planning paradigm that emphasizes involving the entire community in the community planning process. Participatory planning emerged in response to the centralized and rationalistic approaches that defined early urban planning work. It has become an influential paradigm both in the context of traditional urban planning, and in the context of international community development. There is no singular theoretical framework or set of practical methods that make up participatory planning. It is a broad paradigm that incorporates a wide range of theories and approaches. Generally, it seems to integrate technical expertise with the preferences and knowledge of community members during the planning process. Consensus building and collective decision making is usually emphasised, and the inclusion of traditionally marginalized groups in the planning process is also usually prioritised. Prior to the 1970s, community planning was generally directed in a top-down way by trained professionals. Modern community planning developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as city governments and urban planners began to create centralized, comprehensive community plans such as the garden cities of Ebenezer Howard. In this era, the rational planning model was far and away the dominant paradigm in urban planning. Under this model, professional planners would identify an established set of goals for a project, rationally weigh a set of alternatives to achieve those goals, and then create and implement a plan accordingly. There was very little room for public participation within these rationalistic planning models. While discussing the common threads in the vision and work of early urban planners, Influential urbanist Peter Hall says that "Their vision seems to have been that of the planner as the omniscient ruler, who should create new settlement forms ... without interference or question. The complexities of planning in a ...
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